Brazil Figurative Arts Part 2

Among the disciples of Grandjean de Montigny are José Maria Jacintho Rebello (1821-1872), architect and landscape painter, and Francisco Joaquim Bittencourt da Silva, sculptor and architect; among those of Auguste Taunay, there are the sculptors José Joaquim Allão, José Jorge Duarte, Xisto Antonio Pires, Candido Matheus Faria and others; among those of Marco Ferrez, the sculptor Francisco Manuel Chaves Pinheiro (1882-1884). In painting, many foreigners flourished in Rio de Janeiro at this time, some of whom were educated in art by the members of the French commission. We name the Italians Eduardo De Martino, who illustrated the landscape and military history of Brazil with vigor and vivacity, Luigi Santoro and Alessandro Biagini. Among the Brazilian painters he distinguished himself, in addition to numerous disciples of Debret: Manuel de Araujo Porto-Alegre, then baron of Santo Angelo (1806-1879), distinguished poet and writer, who also carried out his activity in teaching and diplomacy, whose paintings attest to a good command of technical means, imagination and color. We remember:D. Pedro I, Visconde de Araguaya, Luiza Rosa benfeitora from Santa Casa, a Ceia (Dome of the Santa Casa), Passagem do Vermelho Tues., coroação de D. Pedro II, not finished. Among the continuers of French teaching, Porto-Alegre is the culminating figure.

While in the capital there was such an intense movement, in the provinces there were nuclei that were not without importance. The Province of St. Paul produces excellent painter José de Almeida Iunior Fleming, author of O Lenhador, Os caipiras, Picador de smoke, Amola ç AO interrompida; that of Bahia, Felix Pereira, Manuel Ignacio da Costa, Feliciano de Aguiar, Bento José Rufino, Joaquim Tourinho, Olympio Freire da Motta and Firmino Monteiro; those of Pernambuco, Pará, Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Sul, other valiant artists, especially painters. We also remember, in Pará, the Italians Domenico de Angelis, painter and sculptor, Pignatelli, Righini, Capranesi, the portrait painters Centofante and Rocattani, and the architect Calandrini.

But the highest artistic expressions are found, under the empire, in “heroic” or “historical” painting determined by the long war with Paraguay: when Brazil affirmed its South American supremacy, Brazilian art also reached its maximum splendor for especially the work of Pedro Americo and Victor Meirelles, to whom Brazil owes a vast work in battle pictures and other genres of painting.

Victor Meirelles de Lima (Santa Catharina, 1832-1903), che studiò anche to Rome and Parigi, compose, fra moltissime altre pitture: S. John the Baptist in carcere (1859), First Mass, Moema, First outcasts, Riachuelo Battle, Battle of Guararapes, Pass Humaytá, Sticking ç to, flagella ç will of Christ, Pledge Princeza Regent Lady Dona Isabel Countess d’Eu in 1872, Sagra ç will of the Church of Candelaria in 1899. Lasciò numerosi discepoli.

Next to him Pedro Americo de Figueiredo and Mello (Parahiba do Norte, 1843-1905), a follower of the classical ideal, he painted historical paintings, including Avahi, Campo – Grande and Batalha de S. Martino, requested by the Italian government. They are also its Petrus to vincula, Colombo, Moysés no Nile, two portraits: David and Pedro II, Socrates Alcibiades afastando dos bra ç os do vicio, S. Marcos, A visão de S. Paulo, Cabesa de S. Jeronymo, Paz and Concordia and many other paintings, made in Brazil, in Paris, in Italy. Success smiled on him, and he received many honors especially from D. Pedro II.

After 1889, the republic was proclaimed, art did not cease to progress. In all the capitals of the confederation, and mainly in Rio de Janeiro, a vivifying breath revives painting and sculpture and also gives architecture a new luxuriance such as had not yet been seen in Brazil, with the monumental reconstruction of many cities. The renewed fervor for ancient Brazilian colonial art is no stranger to this luxuriance.

Manáos, in the heart of the Amazon, builds important buildings. Belém del Pará follows with the same renewing spirit. In this city we remember the architect José de Castro Figueiredo, the sculptors Wolfang Miranda, Nicephoro Moreira, Guilherme Pearce, Henrique Dumont, Giulietta Franca, and the painters Antonio dos Santos Gaspar, also architect and sculptor, Chaves Pinheiro and Bittencourt da Silva. S. Paolo boasts an excellent academy.

In the recent reconstruction of the federal capital, most of the engineers and architects have had: Frontin, Heitor de Mello, Souza Aguiar, Del Vecchio, Alfredo Lisboa, Francisco Bicalho, Vieira Souto, Silva Lara, Ernesto da Cunha de Araujo Vianna, Antonio de Paula Freitas, Carlos Sampaio, Sampaio Corrêa and many others. We remember the sculptors Candido Caetano de Almeid, in Reis, Hortensio Cordoville José Octavio Corrêa Lima and Rodolfo Bernardelli, born in Mexico, but Brazilian by election, for many years director of the academy, author of numerous works, among which we note O Christo ea adultera, the Descobrimento do Brasil group ; the equestrian statues of Osorio and Duque de Caxias. Finally, we also mention the painters Decio Villares, Aurelio de Figueiredo, Henrique Bernardelli, brother of Rodolfo, Parreiras, Baptista da Costa, Belmiro de Almeida, Rodolfo Amodeo, Pedro Weingärtner, Eugenio Latour, Helio Silinger, and others.

Brazil Figurative Arts 2