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Attractions in Magadan, Russia

Attractions in Magadan, Russia

According to THENAILMYTHOLOGY, the largest number of attractions of the Magadan region is located in the Olsky district. The village of Ola is one of the oldest settlements on the Okhotsk coast. It is located 35 km northeast of Magadan. The Olsky Museum of Local Loreoperates in the village. The museum was opened in 1976 and is now located in the building of the House of Pioneers. Its funds contain items on the history, ethnography and archeology of the region, interesting documents and photographic materials.

At 4 km from the village of Ola, on the banks of the Nyuklya River, there is a stele marking the landing site of the First Kolyma geological expedition led by Yu.A. Bilibin.

The main attraction of the Olsky district is the Magadan Reserve.. It was created in 1982 on the territory of the Olsky and Srednekansky regions to protect the natural objects of the region and the reference biological complexes of the Far East region. Its total area is 884,000 hectares. The information center of the reserve is located in Magadan. The reserve includes 4 sections: Kava-Chelomdzhinsky, Olsky, Yamskoy and Seimchansky. On its territory there are swampy plains with lakes, hills, ridges and mountain ranges, 1200-1500 m high with mountain rivers and lakes of volcanic origin. Most of the reserve is occupied by light coniferous forests with a predominance of larch and dwarf pine, and the mainland of the Yamsky site includes a center of Siberian spruce, which is considered a relic of the Magadan region.

608 species of plants, 41 species of mammals, 210 species of birds, 2 species of amphibians and 32 species of fish are registered in the reserve. Of the mammals, there are bank voles, chipmunk, pika, mountain hare, elk, brown bear, fox, sable, ermine and American mink. The reserve is inhabited by such birds as whooper swan, taiga bean goose, teal, wigeon, pintail, shoveler, mallard, medium and large merganser, killer whale, American blueberry and kale. In the river valleys, the white partridge, stone capercaillie, hazel grouse, tundra partridge, mountain pipit, brown dipper and mountain wagtail are common. Kittiwakes, slaty-backed gulls, Bering cormorants, spectacled guillemots and ipatki nest on the rocks of the sea coast. The Yamsky Islands, located in the southern part of Shelikhov Bay, are home to the largest bird colonies in the Sea of Okhotsk. Guillemots nest here auklets, white belly, spectacled guillemot, puffin, gulls and Bering cormorant. The vast open spaces of the Tauy lowland, in which the Kava-Chelomdzhinsky site is located, with numerous lakes, are one of the main waterfowl reserves in the northern Okhotsk region. Whooper swan, taiga bean goose, teal (whistle and cracker), wigeon, pintail, shoveler, mallard, middle and large merganser are common in this area. Of particular interest is the isolated nesting center of the white-fronted goose in the middle reaches of the Kava. This is the southernmost relict population of the species in Eurasia. Of the marine mammals in the reserve, the seal, ringed seal (akiba), sea hare (beared seal) live. In addition, there is the largest rookery of sea lions (about 900 individuals). In the coastal waters of the reserve, you can see killer whales, minke whales and gray whales. In the rivers of the reserve there are char, Dolly Varden, Siberian trout and grayling. The largest natural spawning grounds for anadromous salmon in the Sea of Okhotsk region are located on the Yama and Chelomdzha rivers.

In addition, Talan Island in the northwestern part of the Tauyskaya Bay, where seabirds and their nesting sites are protected, the Kavinskaya Valley on the Kava River and the Malkachanskaya Tundra with colonies of migratory waterfowl, and the Odyan Wildlife Sanctuary on the Koni Peninsula – place of protection of the brown bear. An interesting natural monument is Mayakan Volcano, which is an outcrop of a volcanic vent about 2 km long with three picturesque lakes. On the shore of the Motykleisky Bay at the mouth of the Motykleyka River, there are Motykleysky springs.. These sources of mineral waters have begun to be explored recently. Their temperature ranges from +26 to +41 degrees. In the composition of the waters, ions of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, strontium, rubidium, chlorine, silicon and boron, neutral salts of calcium and magnesium, hydrates of oxides of lead, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt and carbon dioxide were identified. Scientists believe that such water will be effective in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, biliary tract, metabolism, joints, bones, muscles, tendons, peripheral nervous system and urological diseases. In the vicinity of the Motyklei springs there is a protected area where unique plant groups of thermophilic relics are protected.

Khasynsky district is best known for its source of healing thermal waters Talsky. It is located 300 km northeast of Magadan. The spring was discovered at the end of the 19th century by the merchant Afanasy Bushuev. The waters of the Talsky spring are characterized as nitrogenous, siliceous alkaline (chloride-hydrocarbonate-sodium). Their temperature is +91 degrees. On the basis of a spring in the Talaya River basin at an altitude of 720 m above sea level, a balneotherapeutic resort “Talaya” was created.. At the resort, with the help of thermal mineral waters and silt mud with a low content of hydrogen sulfide from the freshwater lake Shuchie, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, gastrointestinal tract, liver, peripheral nervous system, skin and gynecological diseases are treated. Patients are offered treatments such as various types of baths, irrigations, inhalations, drinking cures, mud baths, mud packs, balneotherapy, mud therapy, electrotherapy, physiotherapy, exercise therapy and massage.

In the Khasynsky district there is the Atkinsky zoological reserve, where the bighorn sheep is protected, the natural monument Khasynsky with a relic bird cherry grove and floodplain forests growing along the Khasyn River, rock outcrops of the natural monument Bazaltovy, where you can see black basalts, light gray and cream liparites, rock crystal druse, amethysts and agates, and outcrops of the Peschany geological monument, which contain fossilized remains of Late Permian Jurassic fauna.

In the Yagodninsky district, near the village of Yagodnoye, Orotukan and Sinegorye, there are small ski resorts. In the village of Yagodnoye there is also a museum in memory of the victims of political repressions “Kolyma camps”. It was opened in 1994 in memory of the terrible times. In the 30s of the 20th century, near the village of Khatynnakh, near Yagodnoye, in a place that the people called “Serpantinka”, mass executions of prisoners were carried out. A few meters away stood a barracks for those sentenced to death. In 1991, on the site of the barracks, a monument was erected to all those who died in the Kolyma during the years of terror. The Museum “Kolyma camps” has 4,000 photographs of former prisoners, their personal belongings, tools and camp household items, original cases, camp newspapers, letters, drawings and paintings of prisoners, an extensive library with books about repression, war and the history of the Magadan region.

From the village of Sinegorye, hiking trails begin in the mountains of the Bolshoy Angachak massif, which is part of the Kolyma Highlands. Here is the highest point of the Kolyma Highlands – Mount Snezhnaya (2293 m). This mountain and lake region with picturesque waterfalls is very popular among tourists. The main attractions of the massif are the peaks of Aborigine, Aspirations, Vlastny, Festivalny and Challenger, the valleys of the Unknown, Sibiktelyakh, Eight-lake and Lake Jack London, Dancing Graylings, Elgennya and Lebedinoye. Jack London Lake is located at an altitude of 800 m above sea level. It is of glacial origin. The lake is 10 km long, 2 km wide and 75 m deep. There are several islands on the lake.

It should be noted that the Kolyma Highlands, which occupies most of the territory of the Magadan region, is one of the most popular tourist areas, where routes of varying degrees of difficulty are laid.

In the Severo-Evensky district, the Taigonos reserve on the peninsula of the same name, where the bighorn sheep is protected, the ancient Ust-Erebchan site, which is about 5 thousand years old, Shirokaya thermal springs with a water temperature of up to +56 degrees and Tavatum springs, are of interest.

In the Magadan region, hunting for such animals and birds as brown bear, mountain sheep, duck, goose and capercaillie is allowed. To do this, many reserves and hunting bases were created on the territory of Khasynsky, Srednekansky, Susumansky, Olsky and Severo-Evensky districts. Also in the area you can go fishing or go along the Kolyma River in kayaks or inflatable boats.

Attractions in Magadan, Russia

National Air and Space Museum

National Air and Space Museum

National Air and Space Museum (Washington, USA) – expositions, opening hours, address, phone numbers, official website.

Are you sure that your childhood dream of becoming an astronaut will never come true? Do not rush to conclusions. Still ahead.

The museum is located in two buildings – the premises of the National Mall in Washington and in a breathtaking building near the airport.

Of course, we do not promise a landing on Mars, but we can easily promise the docking of the Soyuz with the Apollo, being inside the cabin of the spacecraft and observing the stars. To do this, you just need to go to Washington, where you should definitely visit the National Air and Space Museum. After all, it is in this museum that you can get acquainted with the world’s largest collection of spacecraft and aircraft. See acronymmonster for nickname of Arkansas.

Museum opening hours: daily from 10:00 to 17:30

Address: 655 Jefferson Drive, SW Washington, DC 20560; tel. 202 357-2700.

National Museum of the American Indian

National Museum of the American Indian (Washington, USA) – expositions, opening hours, address, phone numbers, official website.

Of great interest to people interested in the history, languages, literature, art and life of the indigenous peoples of America is the National Museum of the American Indian, which opened its doors in 2004.

Theater, music and dance are at the center of the Museum of the American Indian. However, the so-called “Golden Wall” attracts special attention. This display of over 400 pieces of art, including masks, coins and jewelry, tells museum visitors about American history from the late 15th century. In total, the museum collection has more than 800 thousand exhibits and 125 thousand photographs.

National Museum of American History

National Museum of American History (Washington, USA) – expositions, opening hours, address, phone numbers, official website.

Immerse yourself in the history of the United States with the National Museum of US History. The exhibits presented in this museum tell visitors about the culture, social life, technological progress and politics of the country.

In addition, the halls of the National Museum of American History exhibit numerous items that once belonged to prominent figures in America, including George Washington himself. This museum has an amazing collection of Renaissance and European Baroque artists.

In the halls of the National Museum of American History are exhibited numerous items that once belonged to prominent figures in America.

It should be noted that the museum serves as a venue for musical performances and festivals, lectures and symposiums, as well as other events in which everyone can participate.

Museum opening hours: daily from 10:00 to 17:30.

Address: 14th Street and Constitution Ave., NW; tel. 202 357-2700.

National Museum of African Art

National Museum of African Art (Washington, USA) – expositions, opening hours, address, phone numbers, official website.

Perhaps, being next to the National Museum of African Art, many do not even suspect what is under their feet. Yes, right under your feet, because the main exhibition areas of the museum are located on three underground floors. Otherwise, it cannot be.

After all, the museum has a rather large collection of amazing items that tell visitors about ancient and modern African art. Believe me, it is unlikely that all these treasures of Africa, and there are about 7 thousand exhibits, could be placed in an above-ground pavilion, in fact, through which you can get into the museum dungeon.

Museum opening hours: daily from 10:00 to 17:30.

Address: 950 Independence Avenue, SW, tel. 202 633-4600.

National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC

National Museum of Natural History in Washington (Washington, USA) – expositions, opening hours, address, phone numbers, official website.

Everyone knows that dinosaurs are especially popular with children, especially boys. In Washington, you can find these long-extinct giant reptiles at the National Museum of Natural History, which has an exhibition of dinosaur skeletons. However, it is worth noting that in this museum, there is something for parents to see. Perhaps the most interesting exhibit is the legendary Hope diamond with a value of 45.5 carats.

The National Museum of Natural History will surprise you with its exposition: life-size stuffed animals will make you tremble with delight. In addition, you will have the opportunity to view more than 125 thousand exhibits: plants, minerals, animals, minerals and precious stones. A nice bonus is that photography is not prohibited here.

Address: 10th Street and Constitution Ave., NW; tel. 202 357-27-00.

National Postal Museum

National Postal Museum (Washington, USA) – expositions, opening hours, address, phone numbers, official website.

Believe me, even if you are not a real philatelist, and collecting stamps is of absolutely no interest to you, you are unlikely to leave the National Postal Museum empty-handed. Having learned all about the history of postage stamps, you will surely want to buy a couple of stamps as a gift or for your own future collection, which you will want to collect right during the tour.

The museum houses many interactive exhibits on the history of the US Postal Service and the history of postal services around the world.

By the way, we draw your attention to the fact that, despite the fact that the Postal Museum is operated by the Smithsonian Institution, it is located next to the railway station, and not on the territory of the National Mall.

Museum opening hours: daily from 10:00 to 17:30

Address: 2nd Massachusetts Ave., NE; tel.: 202 357-3030.

National Air and Space Museum

Cities and Resorts in the United States of America

Cities and Resorts in the United States of America

All US cities and resorts for travel. List of the most famous regions, regions, cities and resorts in the USA: population, codes, distances, best descriptions and reviews of tourists.

New York

One of the most famous cities not only in the United States, but throughout the entire globe, of course, is New York full of incredible energy – the embodiment of youth, success, and activity. New York is already a landmark in itself, here every district, street or even building is covered with some kind of legendary halo. See citypopulationreview for state facts, symbols and history of Arkansas.

The most famous and recognizable symbol of America, which is located in the City of the Big Apple, is, of course, the 93-meter Statue of Liberty. It is located on Ellis Island, it was there that a new life began for millions of people who came to the North American continent, inspired by the dream of making a untold fortune. Today, a ferry runs from Manhattan to the island every day. There is also an Emigration Museum on the island, where the atmosphere of the early 20th century is fully recreated.

Also in New York, it is worth visiting the respectable Manhattan with its clearly designed avenues, bohemian neighborhoods, luxurious parks and, of course, the longest street in the world – Broadway, where absolutely everything is. And by all means, being in this city, you need to walk along the world’s oldest suspended Brooklyn Bridge. This hero of many Hollywood films is no less impressive in real life. And, of course, for just twenty dollars, look at the metropolis from the height of the one hundred and second floor of the famous Empire State Building.

The most famous and recognizable symbol of America, which is located in the City of the Big Apple, is, of course, the 93-meter Statue of Liberty.

The capital of USA

Many interesting sights are also concentrated in the capital of the USA – Washington, among which the Capitol stands out first of all. This is one of the most majestic and luxurious buildings in the States, having not only a presentable facade, but also an even richer interior decoration. By the way, this is the tallest building in the capital, no other should exceed its 55-meter height. It has its own so-called Capitoline Statue of Liberty – a six-meter sculpture of a woman with a sword and shield, as well as a helmet decorated with eagle feathers.

The Capitol is not just a place where the US Congress deals with vital matters, but also a very interesting and original museum, the beauties of which can be enjoyed absolutely free of charge by coming to a special registration desk at eight in the morning on a weekday to stand in line, go through strict control and get entrance ticket. Tourists are offered to take a look at the grandiose dome from the inside, where the most significant events from the history of the United States are very filigree depicted on it, as well as to get acquainted with the sculptures of the country’s most prominent political figures.

Also in Washington attracts the attention of the White House, numerous parks and museums, the main of which is the museum complex with libraries, galleries and exhibition halls of the Smithsonian Research Institute, the entrance to which, by the way, is also absolutely free. Among others, there are also memorial museums dedicated to prominent American presidents, the Spy Museum and even the International Museum of Women’s Art.

The Capitol in Washington is not just a place where the US Congress does business, but also a very interesting and original museum.


Chicago is no less rich in amazing sights, the favorite of children and adults, Walt Disney, was born here, and the legend of the American mafia, Al Capone, conducted his stormy activities here. First of all, the hundred-story John Hancock Center, one of the tallest buildings in the United States, is very popular with tourists. On the ninety-third floor of which there is an observatory that offers simply stunning views of Chicago and Lake Michigan. The observation deck of the 110-story Sears Tower building with a unique glass balcony is also popular. Also in Chicago is one of the largest Shedd Aquariums in the world, one of the best museums of fine art, an unrealistic number of drawbridges and city parks.

US cities

In general, in each of the major US cities you can find a lot of interesting places: this is the old Quincy market, founded back in the century before last, in Boston, and the legendary Golden Gate in San Francisco, and the most gambling Las Vegas Boulevard in the city of the same name, and the art deco district in Miami, and the fabulous “Walt Disney World” in Orlando…

Nature & Parks USA

In addition, the natural wealth of the United States is striking – the picturesque Colorado Grand Canyon, the mighty Cordillera chain, the coasts of two oceans, the Valley of Geysers and the famous desert Death Valley, and most importantly, the unique lakes and the famous Niagara Falls.

The capital of USA

Hungary Travel Tips

Hungary Travel Tips

In addition to the Hungarian language, many Hungarians know one of the foreign languages – English, German or Russian.

According to THEDRESSWIZARD, the best Hungarian souvenirs are ceramics, wooden dolls, woolen goods, embroidery and porcelain from Herend and Kalocs. Export of purchases is allowed for an amount not exceeding $50.

In Hungary, tips are paid to doctors, waiters, hairdressers and taxi drivers (about 10%). In a restaurant, tips are paid immediately upon receipt of the bill. Never leave money on the table.

Foreigners in Hungary are entitled to receive free first aid and emergency medical care, but only in cases where delay in its provision may, in all likelihood, lead to a threat to the life of the patient or serious consequences for his health; as well as when the symptoms (unconsciousness, bleeding, etc.), manifested as a result of an accident or for another reason, require urgent medical attention. In other cases, medical services must be paid according to the tariffs established by medical institutions.

Hungary: Money and currency of Hungary

The national currency of Hungary is the forint, divided into 100 fillers. In the very center of the city and in the Castle Quarter, currency exchange offices are open on Saturday and Sunday. In addition, in most hotels you can exchange money around the clock, and on weekdays this can also be done at tourist offices. During non-working hours in the capital and major cities, you can use exchange ATMs and ATMs to receive forints in cash.

The Hungarian National Bank is open from Monday to Friday from 10:30 to 14:00; commercial banks are open from Monday to Thursday from 8:00 to 15:00, on Fridays from 8:00 to 13:00. On Saturdays all banks are closed .

Hungary: Cuisine of Hungary

Typical dishes of Hungarian cuisine are prepared, as a rule, using red ground paprika, onions, tomatoes and green sweet peppers. The most common meat is pork, and the most popular vegetable is cabbage. Goose liver pate and chicken paprikash are considered delicacies.

Hungarian goulash is beef soup with onions and potatoes. Fisherman’s soup – assorted boiled fish with tomatoes, green peppers and paprika. As a side dish for fish dishes, noodles with cheese and bacon are served here. Soft Hungarian cheese is a mixture of sheep’s cheese with paprika.

Strudel is a layer cake with apples, cherries, cabbage or cheese. For vegetarians – hot cheese, fried mushrooms, mushroom soup or fruit soup. A special kind of pancakes is prepared with cheese, champignons, nuts or poppy seeds.

Among flour products popular are noodles with cottage cheese, sour cream and cracklings (“turosh chusa”); “retesh” – thin toast roll with apple, cherry, poppy seed and other fillings; biscuit-chocolate dessert with whipped cream “Shomloi dumpling”.

Brands of Hungarian beer: “Dreer”, “Aranasok”, “Kebanyai”, “Soproni”, “Stove Salon”, “Bak” (velvet) and others. Along with the most famous Hungarian sparkling wine “Törpey”, there are many other brands of this drink on sale. The most famous of Hungarian wines is Tokay.

Hungary: Culture of Hungary

67% of the population of Hungary are Catholics, 25% are Protestants (mainly Lutherans and Calvinists).

Public holidays:

  • St. Stephen’s Day (king, founder of the Hungarian state) – August 20
  • Day of National Liberation Struggle and Revolution – March 15
  • Day of the revolution of 1956 and the proclamation of the Republic of Hungary (1989) – October 23

In addition, numerous music, theater, dance festivals and flower carnivals take place in Hungary almost continuously. The bath culture in Hungary has a two-thousand-year tradition.

In fact, the whole country is a huge, comfortable balneological resort. During the time of the Romans, bathing culture reached an unprecedented flowering here, which is confirmed by the excavations of Aquincum, a Roman city on the territory of Budapest. Although the Turkish occupation of Hungary in the 16th century caused great damage to the country, the bathing culture did not suffer. Moreover, the Turks – also great admirers of the baths – built new ones, which were highly appreciated by their contemporaries.

Hungary Travel Tips

Democratic Republic of the Congo History of Exploration

Democratic Republic of the Congo History of Exploration

The general survey of the Congo course, carried out by the memorable expedition of H. Stanley in the years 1874-77, represents one of the last great achievements of African geography. Moreover, the existence of this mighty river had already been known for almost 4 centuries, although attempts made repeatedly to go up its course had always failed. The first notion of the mouth of this river is due to Diogo Cão (Diego Cam; v.), Who arrived there on his journey to the western coasts of Africa in 1482-83. To commemorate the event, a large pillar or “padrão” was erected, according to the custom of the time: hence the river called Rio Padrão. The cosmographer Martino Behaim, who was mistakenly believed to have been part of the expedition, would have given him the name of Rio Poderoso, corresponding to its real power. A century later (1578) the Portuguese Duarte Lopez arrived there on his journey to the coast of Angola, and described it as an immense river that the natives called “Zaire”, a name that Portuguese writers then kept for him also because, as Stanley observes, it was consecrated by the Camoēs.

According to SUNGLASSESTRACKER, the name of Zaire – again according to Stanley – would not be a proper name, but a corruption of the word “Nzara-Nzavi” which in the indigenous language means water. However, the name of Congo prevailed in common use in Europe, which was that of an indigenous realm existing on the left of the river and where, from the earliest times, Catholic missions were established that exercised a large influence there. The first widespread information on the towns crossed by the river in its lower section is due to the work of the missionaries who were employed there, especially Italians (GF Romano, Cavazzi, De Carli, Zucchelli, etc.). But the attempts made, as mentioned, to go up its course beyond the first stretch of a few tens of kilometers in which it remains navigable, were unsuccessful, both for the difficulties of navigation, as for the unhealthy climate and the hostility of the residents. No better success was reserved for the great expedition organized in 1816 with great breadth by the British Admiralty to solve the problem of the origin of the river which some thought might have some relationship with Niger, whose delta had not yet been recognized. The English expedition, placed under the command of Captain Giacomo Tuckey, and which included numerous specialists in the various branches of physical and natural sciences, embarked on the ship Congo and on 6 June it reached the mouth of the great river. However, it only managed to go up its course for 100 km., Since the fever that affected most of the crew and which cost the life of the commander and sixteen members of the expedition, forced them to desist from the enterprise. However, we owe it to the first regular topographical and hydrographic survey of the lower Congo.

Later attempts always had unfavorable results and the total reconnaissance of the river had then to proceed starting from its source region. The first trips made in it were those of Dr. David Livingstone (v.), Who in the years 1866-73, exploring the regions west of Tanganyika, recognized the course of the Chambezi, discovering the lakes Moero and Bangueolo, near whose banks he then left his life miserably on 1 May 1873 The intrepid missionary had thus revealed the sources of the Congo, while he believed he had discovered those of the Nile. The following year, Captain V. Lowett Cameron, sent to track down the indefatigable explorer and having learned the news of his end en route, continued his work by reconnaissance of the banks of Tanganyika and discovering his emissary Lukuga, whose course he could not follow but which, due to the information received, he believed he had to unload into the Lualaba and then turn westwards, contrary to the hypothesis that the Lualaba itself belonged to the Nile basin. Although the Cameron could not, as proposed, follow the course of the river from Nyangwe station to its mouth, in the journey he made across the river region between the Zambezi and the Cassai up to Bihé (Angola) he recognized most of the tributaries of left of the great river. It was then up to Stanley the fortune and the merit of putting the design into effect, managing, through difficulties of all kinds, to descend the Congo from Nyangwe (27 October 1876) to Boma (8 August 1877). The course of the river could thus for the first time be traced on the map of Africa.  Stanley’s enterprise led to the constitution of the “Committee of Studies for the Upper Congo” and to the formation of the “Independent State” which in 1908 became the great Belgian colony. Limiting ourselves here to mentioning the main events that led to the recognition of the river and its basin, we will recall the journey that in 1879, on behalf of the aforementioned committee, Stanley himself made going up the course of the main river up to the Stanley Falls and that of the its tributaries Coango and Fini; a journey that resulted in the discovery of Lake Leopoldo II; the company of ten. Wissmann who in his crossing of the African continent (1880-1882) from Loanda to Bagamoio extended the reconnaissance of the left tributaries of the Congo; the journey of dr. Wolf and von François, that they descended the Lulua up to the confluence of the Cassai and the Cassai itself up to the Congo; the fruitful explorations of A. Del Commune in the Lukenie and Sankuru basins (1888-89); the voyage of the Grenfell (1884-85), which went up the course of the Ubanghi; the new great journey of the Stanley, to rescue Emin Pasha, in which journey he recognized the course of the Aruwimi and reached Lake Albert, etc.

But now with the foundation of the “independent state” and with the ever greater work that Belgium will carry out there in order to open up to civilization this immense dominion, already known as we have seen, in its general lines, the methodology will be undertaken regular exploration and the itineraries, the astronomical determinations, the topographic surveys will multiply, which will contribute to giving us an increasingly complete cartographic representation, while the reconnaissance and studies concerning the physical geography and geology of the territory, its climatology, will also progress. ethnography, plant and animal life, etc.

Democratic Republic of the Congo History of Exploration

Lebanon Cinema and Literature

Lebanon Cinema and Literature

Cinema. – According to SPORTSQNA, Lebanese cinematography was marked from the very beginning by enormous difficulties. In fact, only in 1931 a production company, the Lumnar films, appeared on the horizon, being able to produce the first feature, Muġāmarāt Abu Ubayd (“The adventures of Abu Ubayd”), moreover made by a filmmaker of Italian origin, G. Pidutti. For a long time, foreign filmmakers and technicians have formed the backbone of Lebanese cinema, helping the development of the nascent art and helping to raise the technical level of studies. It is since the 1950s that cinematography acquires its own national character, sometimes reflecting the different cultural and political factions of the country. Most of the production is however directly inspired by melodramas and sung films produced in neighboring Egypt. Proof of this are the films of Salmān, author among other things of the musical comedy al-Lahn al-Awwal (“The first melody”, 1957). The sixties and seventies saw the flourishing of the industry especially from the point of view of technologies, so much so that the studios in Beirut are used by Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian directors. The political events of the early 1980s prevented the emergence of new talents, but among the Lebanese documentary makers who left some mark there are Burhān ῾Alawiyya (Kafr Qāsim, 1974, on the massacre of an Arab village by the Israelis) and Mārūn Baġdādī (al-Ḥurūb al-ṣaġīra, “Little Wars”, 1983). The latter was also noted for al-Raǧul al-maḥǧūb (“The Veiled Man”, 1987, about a French doctor involved in the fratricidal violence in Beirut),(La vita suspended, 1991, awarded at the Cannes Film Festival, also inspired by an episode of the civil war).

Literature. – Lebanese writers, who emigrated to Egypt and America at the beginning of the century, gave a great impetus to the development of contemporary Arabic fiction and poetry. The Lebanese Ǧurǧī Zaydān (1861-1914) was one of the most significant exponents of Egyptian culture, bringing the vogue of the historical novel to the Arab world; while another emigrated to Egypt, H̱alīl Muṭrān (1872-1940), was one of the architects of the new Arabic poetry. The Lebanese emigration to the United States and Brazil favored contact between Arab writers and the Western world. Thus was born the school of mahǧar (“emigration”) which reached its maximum expression with Ǧubrān H̱alīl Ǧubrān (1883-1931), writer and poet in Arabic and English, author of the famous The profet (1923), and founder in New York (1920) of the al-Rābiṭa al-Qalamiyya cultural circle. Amīn al-Rīḥānī (1876-1940) and Mīẖā᾽īl Nu῾aymah (1889-1988) should still be mentioned among the founders of this circle.

For the narrative, the important date is 1939, when the journalist and diplomat Tawfīq Yūsuf ῾Awwād (1911-1989) published al-Raġīf (“The loaf”), which is normally considered the first Lebanese novel of some importance. A fruitful writer, ῾Awwād has left us several collections of short stories, including Qamīṣ al-ṣūf (“The Wool Shirt”) from 1937, and the novel Ṭ awāḥīn Bayrūt (1972, “The Mills of Beirut”) on the consequences of the war of 1967 in Lebanon. In 1953 the writer Suhayl Idrīs (b. 1923), author of the novel set in Paris al-Ḥayy al-lātīnī (“The Latin Quarter”), founded the prestigious literary magazine al-Ādāb, which collects the works of the best prose writers and poets from all over the Arab world, from Morocco to ῾Irāq.

The Arab-Israeli conflict of 1967, the Lebanese civil war, the Israeli occupation of the South of the Lebanon will be recurring themes in the works of many Lebanese writers, such as Ḥalīm Barakāt, Syrian by birth, author of a novel with the prophetic title Sittat Ayyām ( 1961 “Six days”) and Awdat Ṭā’ir al-Ila al-Bahr (1969, “The bird returned to the sea”). Among the writers, the names of Amīlī Naṣr Allāh (b. 1931), who wrote a novel on the problem of Lebanese emigration to Canada, Ṭuyūr aylūl (1962, “Birds of September”), and Tilka al-ḏikrayāt (1980, “Those memories”), in which she describes the abduction of her husband during the civil war; by Ḥanān al-Šayḥ (b.1945),(1980) and the collection of short stories Ward al-Ṣaḥrā ‘ (1982, “The desert rose”) among the Shiites of southern Lebanon; and Laylā Ba῾albakkī (b. 1938) who attracted attention very young for his novel on women, Anā Aḥyā (1961, “I am alive”).

In the field of contemporary poetry, the name of Adonis (Adūnīs) stands out, pseudonym of ῾Alī Aḥmad Sa῾īd (b. 1930), Syrian by birth, naturalized Lebanese since 1956: author of numerous collections of lyrics – some translated into different languages ​​-, is certainly one of the major architects of the renewal of Arabic poetry; he collaborated in 1957 with Yūsuf al-H̱āl on the foundation of the magazine Ši῾r (“Poetry”), and in 1969 he founded the magazine Mawāqif.

Lebanon Cinema

Spain Attractions

Spain Attractions

Barcelona enchants

In Barcelona, ​​the Rambla forms the busiest street between the center at Plaça de Catalunya and the port in Barcelona. There are art collections of international importance such as B. the Picasso Museum, the Miro Museum and the Museum of Catalan Art. The most impressive buildings include the old cathedral (1298-1448), the bishop’s palace, the Palacio de la Generalidad and the Plaza del Rey. The construction of the Sagrada Familia (Church of the Holy Family), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, has been going on for over 100 years – according to Gaudí’s plans. Two of Gaudí’s finest residential buildings are Casa Battló and Casa Mila. From the Tibidabo and Montjuic mountains and from Parque Güell you can enjoy a magnificent view over the city.

Winter sports in the land of the sun

Spain offers numerous winter sports opportunities in 34 ski areas with more than 900 kilometers of slopes for alpine skiing. You can often combine a skiing holiday with a beach holiday, for example the mountains of the Sierra Nevada in Andalusia, which are about 100 kilometers away from the coast of Granada, are particularly suitable. The five largest ski areas in Spain are in the Pyrenees, in the Cantabrian Mountains, in the Iberian mountain range, in the Castilian mountains and in the Betic Cordilleras. These mountains have diverse attractions and are suitable for mountaineering as well as for winter sports.

  • ANDYEDUCATION: Introduction to education system in Spain, including compulsory schooling and higher education.

The Altamira Caves

The Altamira Caves are located near the town of Santillana del Mar, as well as near Santander and Magdalena in the autonomous community of Cantabria. Visitors can see imitations of the 13,000-year-old murals in an exhibition about 500 meters from the caves. The originals are preserved in the caves, which are no longer open to the public. The Stone Age cave paintings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage.

Alicante: The beauty of the coast

The port city of Alicante is the hub of the Costa Blanca (White Coast) in the province of Autonomous Valencian Community. The Moorish castle of Santa Barbara dominates the cityscape. A trip inland from Alicante to the hilltop village of Guadalest is worthwhile for San José Castle, the old town and the Orduñas townhouse. The excursion destination Elche offers those interested in nature the famous palm grove El Palmeral, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with over a million palm trees and a botanical garden. Medieval mystery plays are performed in the Basilica every August.

Salamanca: Former European Capital of Culture

Salamanca is the southernmost province of Castile-Leon. The university and provincial capital of Salamanca sits on the banks of the fast-flowing Tormes. Sun and wind have given the beautiful old buildings their attractive golden brown hue. The most famous of them is the Cathedral, the construction of which started around 1500. However, it was not completed until 1733. The university was founded in the 13th century and is the oldest in Spain. The beautiful houses in the Plaza Mayor are also notable. In 2002, Salamanca (along with Bruges in Belgium) was the European Capital of Culture.

Málaga with a lot of Spanish culture

Málaga is the most important city in Andalusia. The university town with the pleasant Mediterranean climate is easily accessible through its airport. Sights include the Alcazaba Moorish fortress, the Catedral de la Encarnación, the birthplace of the painter Pablo Picasso, the La Malagueta bullring and the Picasso Museum. Just a few kilometers from Malaga are the famous resorts of Marbella and Torremolinos. From Málaga you can make trips into the hinterland, a trip to the old mountain town of Ronda in the Sierra de Ronda is particularly recommended.

Water sports on beautiful beaches

The coasts of mainland Spain stretch for 4900 kilometers and offer beaches for the most diverse needs and interests. Windsurfers will be happy at Playa de Valdevaqueros near Tarifa on the Atlantic coast, families at Playas les Marines on the Costa Blanca in Valencia and lovers at Praia de Carnota in Galicia. In Spain you can combine a winter holiday with water sports and a beach holiday. The most famous coasts include the Costa de la Luz in Andalusia, Costa Brava in Catalonia, Costa Blanca in Valencia, Costa Verde in Cantabria and Costa Vasca in the Basque Country.

Valladolid is an oasis

Valladolid is the capital of a province that is particularly rich in castles and historic buildings. The city’s lush gardens provide a delightful contrast to the surrounding arid landscape. The Ferias Mayores (fairs) and Easter parades are also held here. Columbus died here in 1506. His house can be visited, as can Cervantes’ house, which has been converted into a museum. The city has a beautiful medieval cathedral and a university worth seeing.

Santiago de Compostela: destination of the pilgrimage

The world-famous pilgrimage site of Santiago de Compostela is located in Galicia. The old town and the cathedral are part of the UNESCO World Heritage. Attractions also include the Galician Center for Contemporary Art and the Cultural City of Galicia on Mount Gaias. On July 25th the festival of the patron saint of Spain begins in Santiago de Compostela. Beautiful destinations are the city of Lugo with its Roman city walls, which have been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the city of Orense, which was popular with the Romans for its mineral springs.

Santiago de Compostela

Lake Bismarck

Lake Bismarck

In the southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean, north of Papa New Guinea, is Lake Bismarck. This part of the sea is located south of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Admiralty Islands and it is mainly known for the battle that took place here during World War II when Japan suffered a very large military defeat. Lake Bismarck is named after the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.

Geography and history

Lake Bismarck is surrounded to the east and south by the Bismarck Archipelago. To the south, the sea is bordered by Papua New Guinea, which is the eastern part of the island of New Guinea. In the northern part of the lake are the Admiralty Islands which are also part of Papua New Guinea. South of the Bismarck Archipelago is Lake Solomon, which is reached through the Vitiaz Strait. Historically, half of New Guinea was divided between Germany and Great Britain, which meant that Germany had control of Lake Bismarck from the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the First World War. It was also then that the sea part was named after the German Chancellor. One can not talk about this sea without mentioning the battle during World War II when Japan’s invasion of the western Pacific region was stopped, so let’s take a closer look at what happened…

The Battle of Lake Bismarck

The Battle of Lake Bismarck took place on March 2-4, 1943. US and Australian air forces then attacked Japanese escort ships carrying troops en route to Lae in New Guinea. This meant a great loss for Japan. The fact that Japanese troops were even on site was due to the decision to strengthen its position in the southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. The plan was to avoid jungle and mountain terrain by letting the troops travel by sea to Lae. This was done despite being aware of the Allies’ presence in the area.

The reason why the Allies were able to attack the Japanese troops so forcefully was that they were fully aware of what was going on as they had managed to get information about this in advance via interception. When the Japanese convoy left on February 28 from the Simspon port in Rabaul, they were on their way to a massive attack from the USA that was waiting for them. Nearly half of the Japanese troops died and the rest were shipped back to Rabaul. Only a few reached Lae. After this, Japan gave up attempts to strengthen Lae with ships and this meant that they failed to stop the Allies’ advance on New Guinea.

Lake Bismarck

Science and Culture of Austria

Science and Culture of Austria

According to, the state system of school education in Austria was introduced as early as 1774; compulsory eight-year education was introduced in 1869, and nine years in 1962. After 4 years of elementary school, you can enroll in a basic or higher level general education school (gymnasium).

Universities in Austria carry out both teaching and research. Access to the university is open to all residents of the country who have passed the matriculation examination. As in schools, university education is free for Austrians. Now there are 19 universities in Austria, incl. 7 – in Vienna. More than 220 thousand students study in them (the share of foreigners is more than 12%). In addition to universities, there are special higher schools, colleges, academies and other universities.

The Austrian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1847, is the largest non-university scientific institution in the country. She is mainly engaged in fundamental research. It includes the Institute for Comparative Behavior Research. K. Lorenz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, etc.

Altogether in Austria approx. 2,200 scientific institutions employing approximately 25,000 people. Austria is characterized by active participation in international scientific cooperation: it participates in more than 1000 research projects of the EU framework program.

Small Austria is a country of great scientists and entire schools, not only in the natural sciences, but also in the humanities. The Austrian school of economics (K. Menger, F. von Wieser, E. von Beem-Bawerk), liberal theorist L. von Mises, psychologist S. Freud, economist J. Schumpeter, Nobel Prize winners F. von Hayek and K..Lorenz.

In the field of culture, Austria is associated with music. However, it also has deep traditions in the field of literature. Back in the 12th-13th centuries. Austria became one of the centers of literary creativity thanks to Walter von der Vogelweide and the Nibelungenlied. In an era closer to us, the literary glory of Austria was created by S. Zweig, who lived in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary) R. M. Rilke and F. Kafka, R. Musil.

The country has many architectural monuments of different eras and styles, starting from the 11th century. But of particular importance is the baroque, which still reflects the inner essence of the Austrians.

In the field of fine arts, artists G. Klimt, E. Schiele and O. Kokoschka gained world fame.

But music is still the most important of all the arts in Austria. The traditions of the “Viennese classics” – J. Haydn, W. A. Mozart, L. van Beethoven – were continued and developed by F. Schubert, A. Bruckner, J. Brahms, G. Mahler, and already in the 20th century. in the new musical aesthetics – A. Schoenberg, A. Berg, A. Webern. In the 2nd floor. 19th century the Viennese operetta was developed (J. Offenbach, J. Strauss, F. Legar, etc.).

In 1869, the Vienna Opera House was opened, directed by G. Mahler, R. Strauss, K. Böhm, G. von Karajan. The Salzburg Music Festival, held since 1920, is of great cultural significance.

Austrian museums are famous, especially the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum, the Natural History Museum, the world’s largest collection of Albertina graphics, the Austrian Gallery (in the Belvedere Castle) and many others.

General information about Austria

The official name is the Republic of Austria (Republik Osterreich, Republic of Austria). Located in the southern part of Central Europe. The area is 83.9 thousand km2. Population – 8.14 million people. (Estimated as of Ser. 2002). The official language is German. The capital is Vienna (1.6 million people). Public holiday – October 26 (since 1955). The monetary unit is the euro (since 2002).

Member ok. 70 international organizations, incl. UN since 1955, EU since 1995, as well as the IMF, OECD, WTO, etc.

Education of Austria

Science and Culture of South Korea

Science and Culture of South Korea

South Korea government and business circles are aware that South Korea’s economic prospects will largely depend on how successful the development of science and education will be. The education system consists of six years of primary education, three years of secondary education, three years of secondary education in advanced schools. Higher education can be obtained at colleges and universities (ca. 230 in 2001), which also run master’s and postgraduate programs that provide an opportunity to obtain a scientific degree.

According to Andyeducation, school education is paid for by central and local authorities (in the proportion of 78%: 22%), so it is practically universally accessible: only a small part of the cost of purchasing teaching aids is covered by parents. Although higher education institutions are 80% private, the government provides financial support to both the universities themselves and the parents of students, providing preferential loans to pay for the education of children. Officials are encouraged to improve their educational level in the country and abroad. The number of college and university students in 2001 was 1.73 million. Leading universities in the country: Seoul State University, Korea University, Kyung Hee University, Korea University of Education. Tens of thousands of South Korean students receive or continue their education in higher education institutions in the US, Europe and Japan.

The development of a strategy for the development of science in the Republic of Kazakhstan is determined by the Council for Science and Technology, headed by the President of the country. The committees of the Council coordinate the activities of government departments and the private sector in the scientific field. Particular attention is paid to the balance of power in the triangle “scientific laboratories – universities – private business”.

The Ministry of Science and Technology is responsible for the specific financing and implementation of scientific and technical programs, their distribution among scientific centers. The Ministry of Economy, Industry and Energy is responsible for the implementation of priority areas for the development of high-tech industries. The Ministry of Informatics and Communications supports the development of information infrastructure.

A modern scientific base has been created in the country, the financing of which in 2001 reached 12 billion dollars, or 2.7% of GDP (1/3 – budget expenditures, 2/3 – private). The annual increase in spending on science in 1998-2001 was 14%. Among the leading industries are medicine and precision instrumentation, electronics. In these industries, R&D spending accounted for 5% and 4.2% of sales, respectively. However, the share of spending by the largest South Korean companies on R&D is lower than that of the leading Western corporations. Government spending will increase on nuclear research, biotechnology, and so on. Meanwhile, the 20 largest private companies account for 40% of all employed in science and 47% of scientists with a doctorate degree, 55% of all investment in R&D.

Institutional transformations become an acute problem, since the hierarchical and complex structure of large business, its concentration on solving tactical problems at the expense of strategic goals hinders innovation. Reforming the innovation sector implies its commercialization by encouraging the restructuring of large conglomerates, supporting the development of small venture businesses and stimulating the expansion of domestic demand for high-tech products. Only during 2001, declared by the government “the year of biotechnology”, and until the end. 2002 up to 600 venture companies specializing in biotechnology are created with the help of the government.

Since 2001, the Ministry of Science and Technology has sharply increased spending on financial support for scientific personnel. To this end, the practice of awarding prizes, grants, and scientific scholarships is expanding. The goal of modern state policy is to significantly improve the financial situation of those employed in science and strengthen the prestige of scientific work, to raise the status of South Korean scientists in society, who for a long time were in the shadow of the bureaucracy, military and businessmen, and also suffered significant material losses as a result of the crisis of 1997–98.

There are 233 museums in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Among the largest are the National Museum of Korea and the National Museum of Folk Art (Seoul). The museum complexes located in the ancient cities and former capitals of Gyeongju and Buyeo are famous. In addition to state, municipal and university museums, there are more than 80 museums in the country created by individuals and corporations.

In the development of contemporary fine arts in the South of the Korean Peninsula, an important role was played by the activities of the 1950s. The National Exhibition, supported by the state and giving priority to the realistic direction of painting and sculpture. In the subsequent period, other artistic directions developed in the country. Of great importance for the modern cultural life of the Republic of Kazakhstan was the holding in 1995 in Gwangju of the international festival of arts “Kwangju Biennale”, which reflected the diversity of artistic trends in the art of the Republic of Kazakhstan, its growing ties with world cultural centers.

Modern Korean literature (including modern prose and poetry) is developing under the significant influence of Western literature.

Korean musical and theatrical art is rooted in primitive religious rites. Traditional colorful theatrical performances that combine dance, songs and oral narration are presented on the stage of the Cheongdong Theater (Seoul). The first Western-style theater opened in Seoul in 1908. There are several theaters and stages in the Republic of Kazakhstan that stage performances of various genres. A number of them are located on Daehanno Street in the center of Seoul.

South Korean cinema after rapid growth in the 2nd half. 1950s experienced a long decline. Since the 1980s the film industry in Kazakhstan is on the rise again. The popularity of South Korean films is growing, many of which have received recognition at international film festivals in Cannes, Berlin, Venice, and Moscow.

Opera, symphonic music, classical and modern ballet are becoming increasingly popular in the country. Currently, 30 symphony orchestras operate in Seoul and other cities of the country. Korean singers and musicians, many of whom were educated in the best educational institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan and other countries, regularly perform on the stages of famous theaters and at the world’s leading concert venues.

Education of South Korea

Attractions in Boracay Island, Philippines

Attractions in Boracay Island, Philippines


Villages in Boracay – Yapak in the north, Balabag in the center of the island and Manok-Manok in the south – are not only the best place to get acquainted with the life of the locals, but also convenient starting points for excursions in the surrounding area.

Nature miracle. To the west of the village of Yapak is a primeval relict forest, the only one preserved on the island. This remote jungle is home to various primates, reptiles, amphibians and one of the most amazing mammals on earth.
planet – fruit bat, or flying dog. Weighing more than a kilogram and with a wingspan of 1.5 to 1.7 meters, this fantastic beast is one of the largest representatives of the order of bats on the planet. Outside the jungle, nature is no less rich in wonders: exotic trees – guava, mango and papaya – bring crops throughout the island next to blooming orchids and various types of palm trees.

Visiting the caves. The north of the island is famous for its bizarre caves and grottoes. Most of these dungeons are on the rocky east coast. On the west coast, between the beaches of Baling Hai and Punta Bunga, is the equally intriguing Calicugan Cave.

Dead forest. Unusual photo motifs are offered by the Dead Forest, once a freshwater pond at the southern end of Bugabog Beach, into which sea water has penetrated, killing the mangrove trees growing there, whose skeletons still stick out of the water.

Sports and active recreation

Boracay is a great place for sports enthusiasts. Whether your element is water or earth, the possibilities here seem endless. The undoubted leader in popularity is diving: the dive sites of Boracay are equally interesting for any level of training, from beginner to pro. In just 30 minutes by boat, you can reach 20 different sites. It also organizes multi-day excursions to more remote underwater gardens. Golf lovers will not be bored here either: in the north of the island, Fairways & Bluewater Resort has been offering world-class golf courses (18 holes, par 72) since 1997. Sports enthusiasts can explore the island either on foot or on a mountain bike, or on horseback. The last option is undoubtedly the most tempting. Of course, everything things to do on the beach and in coastal waters is one of the favorite ways to spend time in Boracay. Windsurfing and kitesurfing are best practiced in the noisy waters off Bulabog Beach. On the White Beach, a fast ride on a “banana” boat is organized, you can rent a sailing boat or go on an excursion on a boat, through the transparent bottom of which you can see the local underwater kingdom.

More than a spa

Fragrant flower petal baths, hot oil massages, beauty treatments with rare plant essences – Boracay’s spas pamper body and soul and are among the best in the world, as evidenced by their awards, such as the prestigious Spa Asia Cristal Award.. Experienced masseurs and therapists provide spa treatments, reiki massages and other activities to harmonize mind and body in luxurious rooms overlooking the paradise or the turquoise sea.



Gateway to Boracay is a special gangway for boats in Caticlan, on the northern tip of Panay Island. From there, thanks to a newly developed transfer system, you will reach Boracay itself in a 20-minute boat trip. Planes fly regularly to Panay and land at Caticlan Airport or at Kalibo, located 70 kilometers away.


Boracay has offers for every price range: White Beach and nearby bays offer everything from simple cottages and apartments to luxury hotels. During high season (New Year and May holidays) it is recommended to book in advance.


The weather in Boracay is dominated by the northeast and southwest monsoon. The northeast monsoon, Amihan, dominates from late November to March and brings cool, clear weather. At this time, there is a light breeze, calm seas and temperatures from 25 to 32 degrees. From March to June, summer is on the island: warm, sometimes very hot days and from time to time strong monsoon winds. The rainy season begins in July and lasts until November, when the southwest monsoon Habagat reigns here. However, even the rainy season very rarely means that it rains all day long, mostly in showers in the morning and in the evening.

Annual holidays

You can plan a trip based not only on the weather, but also on annual events on Boracay itself and on the nearby island of Panay. Most of them are held during the high season, from December to May. Particularly spectacular are the January Ati-Atihan festival in Panay, the international Funboard Cup in Boracay in the second half of January, and the international beach volleyball tournament held on White Beach in the first two weeks of May.

Moving around the island

Boracay is small, most of the routes can easily be overcome on foot. As public transport for long journeys
, you can use a tricycle, a motorcycle with a side trailer. In addition, in many places you can rent a bicycle or scooter.

Attractions in Boracay Island, Philippines

Salvador, Brazil

Salvador, Brazil

Salvador, the capital of the state of Bahia, is certainly one of the most colorful cities in Brazil. The spirit of those times when it was the capital of the country still hovers here: the former grandeur is gone, but the atmosphere of old colonial Brazil is felt on every street.

From its founding in 1549, Salvador immediately developed into an important seaport, a center for the sugar industry and the slave trade, and became Brazil’s first Portuguese capital. The city had the status of the capital until, in 1763, all the administrative functions of the state were transferred to Rio de Janeiro.

Currently, Salvador is the third largest city in Brazil with a population of about 3.5 million and retains its position as a rich agricultural and industrial area. Salvador is the largest carnival center, colorful and large-scale processions are held here, not inferior in beauty to the parades in Rio de Janeiro, but carried out according to their own rules.

The flight from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro takes 1 hour 50 minutes. From Sao Paulo – 2 hours.
The airport is located 20 km from the city center of Salvador.

The beaches of Salvador The
beach line of Salvador has over 40 km. In total, there are about 20 equipped beaches, the most popular is Itapoa. The famous beach area of ​​Barra with the beach do Farol. Here is the old fort of St. Anthony and a pretty lighthouse on the cape. Barra is followed by the districts of Ondina, Rio Vermelho and Amaralina. Other beaches of the city – Ribeira, Pituba, Flamengo are also quite popular.
In the vicinity of the city, the islands of Itaparica and Ilha de Mare are of interest – very beautiful corners of nature with beautiful beaches.
Popular resorts are located not far from Salvador:
Praia do Forte – 55 km (to the north)
Costa do Sauipe – 70 km (to the north, beyond Praia do Forte)

Entertainment, excursions and sights of Salvador
The main feature of Salvador is the richness of its traditions, formed under the influence of African culture. The city is famous for having the highest percentage of people of African descent in all of Brazil. Most of the population practices the religious cults Oiruba, Candomblé, Umbanda, Kimbanda, in a bizarre way combined with Catholic customs. At night, drums can be heard on the streets of Salvador: supporters of the candomblé cult, dressed in white clothes, regularly perform rituals addressed to their gods. The influence of the “Black Continent” is manifested even in the local Portuguese language, saturated with African words and intonations.

Salvador is divided into upper and lower cities. The upper city, or Cidade Alta, and especially its oldest quarter – Pelourinho, has always been considered the center of state, administrative and spiritual life. To overcome the 50 meters difference between the upper and lower cities, a special lift was built – the Elevador-Lacerda city lift. It is he who is considered the center of the city and goes to the Rio Branco Palace – the most pompous building in Salvador.
Costa Azul Park – the largest park in the city – is located in the Costa Azul area. There is a football field, cycling paths, restaurants, bars, a theater that can accommodate 600 people and a beautiful 35-meter long bridge over the Kamaruzipe River connecting the park with Magaliaes Avenue.
The Garden of Lovers is located near Costa Azul Park. There is also something to do here: bars, restaurants, sports grounds.
Salvador is the birthplace of the Brazilian martial art of capoeira. This sport is even more popular here than football. There is a capoeira school in Salvador on every street. In the Piazza Pelourinho and near the Mercado Modelo market, every day you can see the performances of capoeira masters.

The climate
in Salvador is always great weather for a beach holiday; most of the precipitation falls from April to August; the sunniest season is from October to March; even during the hottest periods, cool breezes blow from the ocean.

Salvador, Brazil

Tours to India

Tours to India

The tour operator in India makes this mysterious and distant country as close and understandable as possible for all travelers from Moscow and other regions. Why is India attractive to tourists from all over the world? Its unique combination of historical sights and a high level of service in hotels and restaurants, the uniqueness of fauna and flora, landscape color (the country has deserts and mountains, the ocean and many lakes and rivers), non-standard neighborhood of luxurious villas and thatched shacks. Holidays in India cannot be monotonous and ordinary!

Tours to India attract, first of all, connoisseurs of sights that this country very generously shares with travelers from all over the world: Ajanta and Taj Mahal caves, Jaisalmer Fort and Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), Virupaksha Temple and Itemad-ud-Daula (mausoleum), the palace on Lake Pikola and the Temple of the divine Lakshmi Narayana, Qutub Minar and the Red Fort. This is only a small fraction of the wealth of great India!

This vibrant country has the most affordable prices for luxury hotels, a rich menu of local cuisine in many restaurants and street cafes, the cleanest white sand beaches and azure-turquoise water in the bays and lagoons of the Indian Ocean. And if you add to all this the magic of the famous and loved by all Indian films, then it immediately becomes clear why this country deservedly takes the place of the favorite in the ranking of the most attractive places for tourists!

Currency: Indian rupee

Language: English, Hindi

Capital: Delhi

India is located in South Asia. The country ranks seventh in the world in terms of area and second in terms of population. India borders with Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, as well as maritime borders with the Maldives, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.

Climate: in the south of India closer to the equatorial, in the north – to the mountainous subtropical. The change of seasons is determined by the monsoons. The hot and dry season lasts from April to June, the average temperature at this time is +38..+46°C, and from mid-June to early October the rainy season lasts (+35..+38°C).
The “high” tourist season in mainland and southern India lasts from early October to late March. The sky during this period is almost cloudless, and the air temperature during the day is +25..+30°C, at night +20..+25°C. In Delhi and to the north, it is cool in December-January, at which time the average temperature is about +13 ° C. In April, when it becomes too hot in the south and in the center of the country, favorable weather is established in the Himalayan states.

Air travel
Aeroflot, together with Air India, flies daily to Delhi. Qatar Airways flies several times a week via Doha to Cochin, Trivandrum, Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore and Dabolim (Goa). Emirates Airlines operates daily flights to Mumbai, Delhi, Cochin, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Chennai (via Dubai), as well as 4 flights a week to Trivandrum and Kolkata (via Dubai). Etihad Airways flies daily to Delhi, Mumbai and Cochin (via Abu Dhabi) and three times a week to Trivandrum and Madras (via Abu Dhabi). Thai Airways flies to Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai via Bangkok.

Citizens of Russia, as well as citizens of most other countries in the world, require a visa to enter India. A single entry visa is issued for a period of validity from one to three months. A multiple-entry tourist visa is issued for a period of 180 days, at least 2 months must elapse between trips. The validity of a visa starts from the date of issue, not from the date of first entry.

Since January 2015, citizens of the Russian Federation can obtain a visa online by registering on the relevant site, the stamp itself is placed upon arrival.

Customs The
import of foreign currency (and the export of previously imported) is not limited, national – is prohibited. More than 10,000 USD in cash (or the equivalent in another currency), as well as personal computers and laptops must be declared. Duty-free importation of 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 g of tobacco, alcoholic beverages – up to 0.95 liters, jewelry, food, household items and items – within the limits of personal needs is allowed.
It is prohibited to import drugs and preparations containing narcotic substances, weapons and ammunition without appropriate permits. It is forbidden to export skins of tigers, wild animals and plumage of birds, skins and skin products of rare reptiles and ivory, live plants, gold and silver bars, jewelry worth more than 2000 INR (except those bought in duty free), antiques made over a hundred years ago.

India’s coastline, with a total length of nearly 6,000 kilometers, boasts some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. The most “developed” and popular beach resorts are located in the states of Goa and Kerala.

Goa – the main resort of the country, as it often happens, is completely different from the rest of India. The coast stretches here for 110 km, forming 40 beautiful beaches. The state is divided into Northern and Southern parts, the “border” between which is Fort Aguada. Hotels and guesthouses located in South Goa are considered expensive, and not only by Indian standards. They are popular among wealthy Europeans and wealthy Indians. The complete opposite is North Goa, relatively inexpensive, noisy and democratic. There, in numerous villages, mainly advanced youth from America and Europe settle, thanks to which this place has become famous throughout the world.

Kerala is the most idyllic state of India. Rest on the beaches there is combined with effective Ayurvedic treatment, rich cultural traditions are happy to “season” with exotic cuisine.

Tours to India

Resorts in Cape Verde

Resorts in Cape Verde


One of the most attractive islands in the archipelago, famous for its beautiful nature and comfortable climate. Mountains covered with eucalyptus groves and plantations of tropical plants, rocks and canyons make up the unique landscape of the island. The island is one of the greenest islands – tropical fruits are grown here – bananas, papayas, mangoes, dates, coconuts, etc. Here, surrounded by a eucalyptus forest, there is a unique botanical garden with the world’s largest baobab. Santiago is the largest and most populated island of Cape Verde. The capital of the island – the city of Praia – is a rapidly developing administrative center. Interesting as the old area with preserved buildings in the colonial style, and modern areas. It is worth visiting Cidade Velha (Old City) – the first capital of Cape Verde. The city grew out of the fortified settlement of Ribeira Grande, which is the basis of the culture of the islands. Of the main attractions of the island, it is also worth noting San Jorge dos Orgaos, Assomada with its picturesque fruit market, Shau Bom, where you can visit the old prison, which now houses the Museum of the Resistance, Bahia di Tarafal. Not far from the capital is the medieval Portuguese fortress of St. Philip – the first buildings of Europeans in Cape Verde. Ship cannons raised from the bottom of the ocean adorn the fortress walls.


A charming resort island of volcanic origin, which has become world famous as the birthplace of the great singer Cesaria Evora. The National Craft Center is open here – a place where the traditional textile craft was restored, as well as the manufacture of jewelry from shells and stones.

The capital is Mindelo; major cities: Baia das Gatas, São Pedro, Callao. The best beach is in San Pedro.


The third largest island of the archipelago, the island of beaches and dunes, which stretch here for 55 km. In addition, this is one of the best islands for diving and surfing. The first settlement here is the village of Povoacao Velha, which in Russian means “Old Village”.

The capital of the island is the town of Sal Rey, whose whole life develops only around the harbor. Recently, several first-class tourist complexes have been built on the island, so there should be no problems with accommodation here. The island is famous for its unique scenic views of deserts, oases, dunes and beaches. For example, the Viana desert, Santa Monica beach, the old Morro Negro lighthouse and the old ceramic factory. Recently, off-road and ATV safaris and desert motocross have become fashionable entertainment on the island.

Great beaches are Santa Monica, Curralinho, and further south Lacação and Curral Velho (which are a bit difficult to access).


The most popular island among travelers. Most often, tourists stop here, and go on excursions to other islands only for a short time (usually for a day or two). The active development of tourism has changed the face of the island almost beyond recognition: over the past decade, the number of local residents has doubled, first-class hotels have been opened here. Basically, the island is covered with sand dunes, only in the north there are outcrops of rocky rocks of an extinct volcano. Sal is very popular among surfers. There are 6 surf clubs on the island. One of the world’s largest windsurfing centers is located in the city of Santa Maria. For diving enthusiasts, there are 32 dive sites on the island: Ponta Do Farol reef up to 40.5 m deep, Tchuklasta reef – 36 m, Blue Room – 30.4 m, Palmeira caves – Pesqueiro Ti Culao – about 23 m, cave Buracona – 22.5 m.

Visa in Cape Verde

Citizens of the Russian Federation do not need a visa to visit Cape Verde for up to 60 days..

There is currently no Consulate of Cape Verde in Moscow.

The Embassy of Russia and the consular department in Cape Verde: Praia, PO Box 31, Achada de Santo Antonio (Priaia, Achada de Santo Antonio, S.R. 31), st. OUA, tel. (238) 61-27-38, 61-27-39 (around the clock), fax 62-27-38, telex 6016.

from January 1, 2019, Cape Verde introduced one of the highest airport security fees – 31 euros (in local currency – 3400 escudos). It is paid at the airport upon entry.

On April 30, 2019, an Agreement was signed between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Cape Verde on the mutual abolition of visa requirements (effective date – July 4, 2020), according to which citizens of Russia and Cape Verde who do not intend to work, study or reside in the territory of another state are exempted from visa requirements for entry, stay, exit or transit through the territory of another state. The duration of each such stay may not exceed 60 days. The total period of permitted stay of citizens of Russia and Cape Verde in the territory of another state is established in accordance with the laws and regulations of the state of each Party.

To obtain a residence permit, you must live in the country for at least 6 months.

In the case of a transplant in Portugal or another European country without entering the city, a Schengen visa is not required.

The validity of a foreign passport should expire no earlier than six months after entering the country.

Crossing the border is carried out only through border control points at airports and seaports of the country.

Resorts in Cape Verde

Museums in Washington DC

Museums in Washington DC

Smithsonian Information Center (The Castle), 1000 Jefferson Drive SW
The first building belonging to the Smithsonian Institution now houses the information center. In addition to a 24-minute video about the Smithsonian Institution, there are interactive touch screens in 6 languages ​​(touch-intensive screens) with further information, also about other sights of the capital.

Anacostia Museum, 1901 Fort Place, SE,
Temporary exhibits on African-American history, art, and culture in the Capitol Region, Georgia, and the Carolinas.

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Freer Gallery of Art, Sackler Gallery at 1050 Independence Avenue, SW.,, Freer Gallery of Art on Jefferson Drive at 12th Street, SW
temporary exhibitions of Asian art and works by American artists of the 19th and 20th centuries in the Freer Gallery. The Peacock Room is the only surviving example of the work of the emigrated interior designer James McNeill Whistler. Both museums are connected by underground exhibition rooms.

American Indian Museum, Fourth Street & Independence Ave., SW,
The exhibitions on the indigenous people are a main attraction. In seasonal weddings, only temporary – free – tickets may be issued for the visit. January, February and the beginning of March are low in visitors. There is more activity on the weekends than on the weekdays.
Also the online article of the world on Sunday from 06/11/05 ” Wigwam in a central location ”

Hirshhorn Museum & Sculpture Garden, corner of 7th St. SW and Independence Ave.,
Paintings and sculptures in a cylindrical museum building and the surrounding garden.

National Museum of African Art, 950 Independence Avenue, SW,
Collections on African art and culture.

National Museum of American Art,
Paintings, sculptures, folk art, photographs and graphics by American artists from the 18th century to the present day.
More details in an article in the newspaper USA Today.

National Museum of Natural History, 10th Street and Constitution Ave., NW,
Great museum of natural history and science with stuffed mammals, dinosaur skeletons, tarantula feedings in the insect zoo, living coral reefs and collections of precious stones, including the 45.5 carat Hope diamond. A total of more than 120 million objects and a Johnson IMAX theater.

National Portrait Gallery, 8th and F Streets, NW,
Collection of portraits of famous Americans from politics, sports, literature, stage and film. The Hall of Presidents contains the official portraits of the US presidents.

National Museum of American History, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW,
Museum of the history of the United States with exhibits on politics, technology, science and culture. Highlights are the flag that inspired the anthem The Star Spangled Banner, the robes of some first ladies at the inaugurations, as well as quilts, cars and locomotives.

National Postal Museum, 2 Massachusetts Ave., NE,
A collection of mail planes, stagecoaches, rare stamps and letters and a Pony Express exhibit.

National Zoological Park, 3001 Connecticut Avenue NW,
More than 3,000 mammals, birds and reptiles.

National Air and Space Museum

6th St. and Independence Ave.,

The aviation museum is one of the largest on earth. Shown are the history and development of aerospace, including the Wright Brothers’ aircraft, Charles Lindbergh’s “Spirit of St. Louis” aircraft and the Apollo 11 command module. Furthermore, lunar and space research are presented, rocket flight, military and computer technology. A planetarium, multimedia programs and IMAX big screen films complete the offer.

With nearly 9 million visitors a year, the National Air and Space Museum is the most visited museum in the world. It continues to grow: 28 miles from town, on the southeast corner of Dulles International Airport, the Steven F. Udvar Hazy Center was opened as an outpost. The hangar-like main hall is as big as three and a half football fields. 200 aircraft and more than 130 exhibits from space travel are shown in their final stages, either standing or floating. The main attractions include the Lockheed SR-71 (“Blackbird”) spy plane, the first Concorde, prototypes of the space shuttle and Boeing 707, and the infamous “Enola Gay”, which dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

Museums in Washington DC

Greece Population and Economy 2001

Greece Population and Economy 2001


Southern European state, located on the Balkan Peninsula. According to the 2001 census, the population amounts to 10,964,000. The demographic dynamics, both natural and migratory, are very modest, and continue in the wake of previous years, still highlighting significant internal shifts from the poorest to the richest areas. In addition to Athens, the capital (3,761,000 residents including the urban agglomeration), other important cities are Thessaloniki (1,047,000) and the conurbations of Patras (334,000), Iraklion (294,000) and Larissa (278,000). The clearly prevalent ethnic group is the Greek one (93%); the rest of the population is made up of Albanians (4 %), Asians (1 %) and others (2 %). The dominant religion is the Greek Orthodox (97.5 %), followed by the Muslim (1.5 %). The official language is Greek in its two forms: Katharevoussa (formal language) and Demotiki (common language, also taught in schools). Knowledge of English and French is widespread.

Economic conditions

From 1 January 2002 the drachma, the national currency, was replaced by the euro, testifying to the full integration of the country into the European Union. Despite this, the economy still appears to be underdeveloped, although extremely open to foreign products and investments. Industry, traditionally small in size, contributes just over a fifth to the formation of GDP; the 10-12 % up to the manufacturing sector alone. However, there are some particularly dynamic sectors, such as telecommunications and information technology. The weight of the agricultural sector on GDP (6-7 %) is significant, and far above the European Union average (2.5%), a spy of a country that is still heavily agricultural and poorly modernized, which also suffers from the phenomenon of the continuous exodus from the countryside. The primary sector is characterized by small production units, with typically Mediterranean productions (olive oil, citrus fruits, tobacco and cotton), which represent a considerable share of exports. The tertiary sector is quite developed (it participates in GDP for just over two thirds), above all due to the contribution of the tourism sector. Although already starting from 1998 a privatization program has been launched, aimed at the objective of entry into the European Monetary Union, the process is at a very backward stage, and the public apparatus retains an extremely significant presence in the management of economic activities, with a strong influence on the real competitiveness of companies. The sectors where the state monopoly is more marked are those of energy and telecommunications. In the past, industrial concentration in the areas of Athens and Thessaloniki, together with the lack of infrastructure in the northern regions and islands, penalized economic decentralization towards these latter areas. Subsequently, thanks also to the funding of the European Union, important road, railway, ports and airports, with a clear improvement in the situation. In the early years of the 2000s, Greece experienced a constant growth, attested around an annual average of 4 % and driven by the expansion of domestic demand, in turn facilitated by a significant growth in per capita income, which in 2003, according to the World Bank, recorded an increase of 3.4 %, reaching $ 19,670. In reality, GDP growth is affected by two factors: public investments, mainly linked to the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, and the financial contribution of European Union aid (Third Community Support Framework). The latter weigh on the increase in GDP to the extent of 2%, which halves the real entity. Despite the positive dynamics of GDP, in fact, about one fifth of the population lives below the poverty line, against 15 % of the European Union average. All this in the face of inflation of around 3 %, which grew slightly in the early 2000s and subsequently decreased, mainly due to the appreciation of the euro against the dollar and the consequent decrease in the price of imported goods, especially unprocessed ones. However, various pressure factors remain on the price level, such as the costs of the pension reform and the expansionary dynamics of the oil price on international markets.

The unemployment rate, steadily albeit slowly declining in the first five years of the 21st century, stood at around 10 %; but long-term unemployment remains high, placing the country in second place in Europe after Italy. As far as the trade balance is concerned, there is a growing negative balance, which highlights the country’s dependence on the import of various goods, including, in addition to some consumer products, also intermediate products, chemicals and machinery. The main trading partners are Germany, with 12.6 % of imports and 12.9%% of Greek exports, followed by Italy. In essence, the growth of the country’s economy appears to be fueled by positive factors of a temporary nature, which stimulate domestic demand, but do not seem suitable for ensuring sustained levels of growth in the long term, as these are more closely linked to structural reforms, which are still incomplete. in Greece. As for the Olympics, they have benefited mainly the capital, a victim of the fifties 20° sec. of a highly penalizing anarchist urbanization. Very populous, squeezed between the mountains and the sea and very polluted, Athens has benefited not only from the construction of impressive sports facilities (which unfortunately, however, raise doubts about the future costs of their maintenance), also from important architectural restoration works and public green. In addition, a tram that connects it to the sea, a new international airport (E. Venizelos), a ring road and a three-line subway have also been created.

Greece Population and Economy 2001

Russia Population in the Early 1990’s

Russia Population in the Early 1990’s

Maximum heir and successor of the USSR, leader of the Commonwealth of Independent States ( CIS , see in this Appendix), the Russia, formed in 1991, also took on the name of the Russian Federation with the Federal Treaty of 1992. It is the largest country in the world by surface area (over 17.1 million km ²) and one of the most significant for the population (147. 963 500 residents In 1999). The Constitution of the Russian Federation, which has a clearly presidential imprint and which reduced the prerogatives initially accorded to the member states (right of secession, prevalence of local legislation over federal law), was approved in1993.

In the CIS, which groups 12 states (all the components already federated in the ancient USSR, except Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), the Russia is undoubtedly the leading state, even if the institutional ties with the other members are overall tenuous.. De facto ties, on the other hand, vary from a certain tendency towards political re-aggregation (a closer and more specific Community of Independent Republics was established with Belarus in 1996 – 97 and a significant ‘friendship treaty’ was signed with Ukraine in 1997.) to more frequent military cooperation and economic integration (in particular with some Central Asian countries: 1996 agreements of Russia and Belarus with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan); however, they are made complex by the massive presence in these states of Russian minorities (especially, in order, in Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan).

The internal structure of the Russian Federation is complex, involving not only 22 federated republics, but also a certain number of autonomous territorial units (10 districts or okrugi, a province, two cities and 6 territories or krai), all located within that which is by far the largest of the republics, the Russia in the strict sense: this, adding to the autonomous units the 49 ordinary provinces (oblasts), occupies over 70 % of the surface and includes almost 85% of the population of the entire Federation. Among the other federated republics, the largest by far is that of the Jacuti (over 3.1 million km ², with just one million residents), followed at a distance by the Republic of Comi (415,900 km ²) and the Republic Buryat (351. 300 km ²); the most populous is from the Republic of Bashkortostan and Bashkortostan (over 4,1 million pop.), followed by the Tatars, or Tatarstan (3, 8 million pop.).

While the two possible ‘external’ Russian claims on Crimea (see Ukraine, in this Appendix) and South Ossetia (see Georgia, in this Appendix) are not raised for the moment, and even more so that on Northern Kazakhstan in which a strong Russian-speaking minority is concentrated (see Kazakhstan, in this Appendix), within the Federation independentist movements have bloodied Chechnya for a long time in the Ciscaucasian area. This federated republic, separated from Ingushetia with which it once constituted an autonomous republic of the USSR, had already declared itself independent in 1991 (with the autochthonous name of Ičkeria since 1994), provoking in the long run a hard and bloody Russian military intervention (1994 – 96); with the 1996 agreements, the definition of the status of Chechnya was postponed to a referendum to be held in 2001, but the conflict flared up again in 1999 (see below: History). Strong aspirations for greater autonomy – if not independence – characterize not only other federated republics (Tatarstan in the middle Volga basin, which was granted special autonomy in 1994 ; Baškortostan; Karelia on the border with Finland ; Tuva in Siberia), but also remote kraiSiberians like those of Khabarovsk and Primor´e, very far from Moscow, and even simple oblasts like that of Sverdlovsk (‘Ural Republic’, proclaimed in 1993 and then fallen into thin air). All within the framework of a widespread aspiration to self-government motivated by ethnic reasons, by great distances, and above all by the aspiration of local communities to control their own resources: eg. oil in Chechnya, and even more so the positive position enjoyed by this republic, as it is crossed by the oil pipeline (damaged and blocked several times during the recent civil war) that leads from Baku and the Caspian to Novorossiysk, a Russian export port on the Black Sea.

In this complicated intertwining of claims of belonging and independence, of tendencies to re-aggregation and threats of secession, it is hardly necessary to note that, while the western borders of the Russia are no longer contested by anyone, a strip of Russian territory is, quietly but continuously, claimed by Japan to the east: the Kuril Islands.


The population of the Russian Federation is practically zero growth, if not a slight decrease: in fact the demographic vitality of some of the ethnic minorities and the return flows of Russians from some of the former Soviet republics (Central Asian and Caucasian in particular) are more than balanced by the senile demographic behavior of the great majority of the population: the birth rate has dropped below 10% and the death rate is close to 14% (1997).

About ten cities are located between one million and one and a half million residents (values ​​substantially stationary in recent decades): they are mostly capitals of large oblasts of the Russia in the strict sense, except Ufa and Kazan ‘which perform capital functions of the two main among the minor federated republics (those of the Bashkirs and the Tatars). The two peaks of the Russian urban network stand on these cities: St. Petersburg, the northernmost metropolis on Earth, with 4.7 million residents (it is under the protection of UNESCO with the 2001 Heritage project), and Moscow, spread like wildfire around the Kremlin (deeply renewed in its face, at least in the center, in the last years of the millennium, in particular with the reopening and revaluation of the splendid Orthodox churches), with over 8.5 millions of residents: these two urban centers are the only ones to have the status of ‘autonomous city’ within the Russian Federation. The toponymic revisionism, which had led, starting from 1990, to the restoration of many of the ancient names of cities of the pre-Soviet era, abruptly came to a halt: thus Caricyn was once again called Volgograd, and Togliatti kept its name after the specific referendum of 1996.

From an ethnic point of view, 83 % of the population of the Federation is made up of real Russians (1994): they represent the great majority of the residents of Russia in the strict sense, but also the majority or at least a strong minority in the other federated republics.: from 74 % in Karelia to 27 % in the Chuvash Republic. In the Federation as a whole, the main internal ethnic minority is constituted by the Tatars (almost 4 % of the total population and 49 % of that of their specific republic) and the external one by the Ukrainians (over 2% of the total population). The other minorities, both internal (Chuvas, Bashkirs, Mordvini, Chechens – all organized into their own federated republics – and others, mostly owners of autonomous territories within Russia in the strict sense), and external (Belarusians, etc..). It should be remembered that outside Russia, in the other republics of the former USSR (including the Baltic ones that are not part of the CIS), there are still almost 25 million Russians. On the religious level, ethnic Russians – the believing ones – are mostly Orthodox Christians (35 ÷ 40 million practitioners according to a 1996 assessment), and the Orthodox Church enjoys a certain position of privilege also at the political level; moreover, Tatars, Chechens and other groups are Muslims, the Buryats are Buddhists and there is no shortage of Jewish groups (which have their own autonomous province within the Russian Republic). Orthodox, Muslim, Buddhist and Jewish cults are to some extent protected by the state, as they are considered “traditional cults of Russia” according to a law of 1997, which in a certain sense discriminates against minority religious confessions, including the Catholic one (tabb. 2a and 2b ).

Russia Population in the Early 1990's

Switzerland Architecture

Switzerland Architecture

Simplification, geometric abstraction, materiality, tea, relevance of the work to the landscape-environmental and socio-economic contexts of reference, are the main characteristics that characterize Swiss architecture, whose primary attention to the reasons for building, in a reworked continuity with the themes of the modern, remains as a necessary and adequate response to the current crisis.

Central to this is the figure of Peter Zumthor (b.1943), Ptritzker prize 2009 and RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) Royal gold medal 2013, whose poetic research has always been linked to expressive conciseness and essentiality material of the artefact, rooted in the context to which it belongs, develops in the creation of ‘atmospheres’ in which to summarize the phenomenological experience of space, as in the Kolumba Museum (2007) in Cologne and in the Chapel of San Nicola de Flue in Hof Scheidtweiler (2007) in Mechernich in Germany, in the Steilneset Memorial (2011, with Louise Bourgeois) in Vardø, Norway, and in the project for the LACMA (Los Angeles County Museum of Art), which is scheduled to open in 2022.

Attentive to the expressive economy, in the shared rational inclination and in the executive correctness, they continue to work among others: Luigi Snozzi (b.1932), author, with Sa-brina Snozzi Groisman and Gustavo Groisman (in partnership since 1992), of the building administrative 3 of the department of the territory in Bellinzona (2013) and of the Guidotti house (2011) in Monte Carasso, of which since 1978 he has developed the strategic plan of the urban center, articulated by interventions of different nature and consistency, all characterized by a laconic language and chastened; Theo Hotz Partner (b.1948), signatory of the main station in Vienna (2014) and, in Zurich, of the Sihlcity project (2007) for the revitalization of an industrial area, of the Aarau station (2014), of the Skykey (2014)) and the Police and Justice center (2019); Diener & House of music, archive and library (2010) at the Benedictine Monastery of Einsiedeln, the Mobimo Tower (2011) in Zurich and the Markthalle Tower (2012) in Basel, as well as, abroad, the extension of the Museum of Natural Sciences (2010) in Berlin and the Memorial of the Shoah (2012) in Drancy; Bearth & Deplazes (1988, partnership shared since 1995 with Daniel Ladner), signatory of the new Monte Rosa refuge (2009) in Zermatt and, with the Durish + Nolli firm (1993), of the Federal Criminal Court (2013) of Bellinzona, who involved, in the design of the concrete vaults of the courtrooms, the studio Gramazio Kohler (1999), already a signatory with Bearth & Deplazes of the Cantina Gantenbein (2007) in Fläsch and generally informed about a digital and parametric feeling never dissociated, however, from the construction system; Valerio Olgiati (b.1958), designer capable of drawing his expressive power from a simple and primordial idea, as can be seen from the Bardill atelier (2007) in Scharans (2007), from the Visitor Center (2008) to the Swiss National Park of Zernez, from the Plantahof Auditorium (2010)) to Landquart; Christian Kerez (b.1962), author prone to clear structural expression, as in the school building (2009) in Leutschenbach (Zurich) and in the (unrealized) project for the Museum of Modern Art in Warsaw, winner of the international competition in 2006.

Characterized by a particular attention to the casings, to the textures, to the manipulation and experimentation of materials, is the whole work of Herzog & de Meuron, Pritzker Prize 2001, whose professional partnership started in 1978 has produced some of the most appreciated and awarded iconic buildings on the international scene. Among the latest in Basel, the Elsässertor II commercial building (2005), the St. Jakob Tower (2008), the Museum der Kulturen (2010), the Roche 97 building (2011), the Basel Messe Center (2013), as well as the temporary Schaulager Satellite pavilion (2012), alongside the numerous interventions carried out abroad, among the most important: the Michael H. de Young Memorial museum (2005) in San Francisco, the expansion of the Walker art center (2005) in Minneapolis, the Allianz Arena (2005) in Munich, the Caixa Forum (2007) in Madrid, the Cottbus library (2008),

for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing; Luscher Architectes (1970), signatories of the Prilly-Malley RER station in Lausanne (2012), the Selve-Areal Tower (2013) in Thoune and the FIBA ​​world headquarters (Fédération Internationale de BAsketball, 2013) in Mies; the Mieli & Peter studio (1987), author of the expansion of the Sprengel Museum (2015) in Hanover and, in Zurich, of the football stadium (2009), of the new City West residential complex (2014) – with the Zölly Tower (Silver hare award 2014) – and the transformation of the former no duty free warehouse into residential useAlbisrieden (expected to be completed in 2016); Morger & Detti studies (2006) – author of the Hilti art foundation / Huber Uhren Schmuck (2015) in Vaduz and of the HGK University of art and design (2014) in Basel – and Degelo Architekten (2005) – signatory of the extension of the Davos congress center (2010) and the renovation of the St. Jakobshalle (which is expected to be completed in 2017) in Basel – until 2005 united in the partnership Morger & Degelo.

Among the youngest and most innovative studies: EM2N (1997), author of the Hardbrücke railway station (2007), of the Cultural Center (2011) of Thun, and, in Zurich, of Theater 11 (2006), of the expansion of the maintenance of the Herdern trains (2013) and the Neufrankengasse residential complex (2013); Christ & Gantenbein (1998), signatory of the extensions to the Basel Museum of Art (2015) and the Swiss National Museum in Zurich (scheduled to open in 2016); Camenzind Evolution (1998), author, in Zurich, of the Seewürfel (2005) and KISS (2012) complexes and the Cocoon office building (2007), as well as service buildings for the Google Company, such as the EMEA Engineering Hub ( 2008) in Zurich, the offices in Moscow (2010) and Tel Aviv (2012), the Dublin campus (2013); Group8 (2000), International Committee of the Red Cross, 2011), all in Geneva, and residences (2012) in Crans-près-Céligny; Holzer Kobler Architekturen (2004), signatories of the Wasserschloss residential complex (2012) in Gebenstorf, of the new Edelreich shopping center (due to open in 2016) in Wigoltingen, of the conversion and extension of the Cattaneo building (2008) and of the renovation of the RWD-Hochhaus tower (2007), both in Dietikon (Zurich).

Switzerland Architecture

Mexico General Information

Mexico General Information

Mexico is an incredibly beautiful country located in North America. This is truly a paradise for tourists, because the rest here is extremely diverse. The Latin American state, on the one hand, is washed by the waters of the Pacific Ocean, on the other hand, by the Caribbean Sea, therefore it is here that the best, world-famous sandy beaches are located, the beauty of which cannot be imagined without seeing them at least once. Therefore, it’s time to book a tour to Mexico from Minsk and go on an exciting journey!

Holidays in Mexico are so diverse that they will appeal to both fans of incendiary entertainment and those who want to learn more about the country’s culture by visiting numerous historical sites. Mexico is also a paradise for diving enthusiasts, because it is here that the largest coral reefs in the region are located. Surfing beaches, which can be practiced at almost every resort in Mexico, are waiting for beginners and professionals. The climate in the country is tropical and subtropical. It is warm in winter and hot in summer. It is quite cool in the highlands, while hot weather reigns on the coast, so consider these nuances when choosing a tour to Mexico from Minsk.

Having chosen tours to Mexico for your vacation, you will see the famous Lake Atitlan, relax on the best beaches of the Caribbean Sea, visit many interesting excursions, taste amazing Mexican cuisine. Shoppers will be able to purchase unique souvenirs, silverware, fabrics and much more.

Tours to Mexico are annually chosen by millions of tourists who are eager for new experiences, and it is difficult to imagine a country more suitable for such a varied and unforgettable vacation. Call us and we will organize your unforgettable vacation in hot and colorful Mexico!


List of documents required for obtaining a tourist visa to Mexico for citizens of the Republic of Belarus:
(if you have a visa to Canada, Schengen, USA, Japan, Great Britain, a visa to Mexico is not needed)

  • Passport valid for at least 6 months from the end of the trip with 2 blank pages in the Visa section;
  • 2 color photographs 3*4cm, not older than 6 months, on a white background, without glasses, the face should be completely open (it is desirable for girls to remove bangs and pin up their hair);
  • Certificate of employment for the last 6 months.

Requirements for a certificate of employment :
1. on letterhead with a seal and signature of the director and accountant, indicating the address of the place of work, phone number, position of the employee. If the applicant is a director, the certificate is signed by other authorized persons (deputy director and accountant).
2. work period “from dd/mm/yy to present” (at least 1 year)
3. salary (at least $550 per month). Only the average monthly salary is allowed.
4. be sure to indicate the equivalent of the salary in USD
5. if the salary is scheduled by months, then when submitting documents on the 1st day of a new month, the previous month must be registered. For example, we submit documents on March 2 – the salary for February should be registered.

  • For non-working – a photocopy of a student card + a certificate from the institute, pension certificate, work book;
  • For individual entrepreneurs – a copy of the certificate of registration + bank statement.
  • Bank statement STRICTLY with the movement of funds (both incoming and outgoing transactions) for the last 3 months. Balance at the end of each month and the final balance of at least 1500 USD (in any currency). The statement must indicate the currency of the account.

ATTENTION! If the average monthly salary is above 600 USD, a bank statement may not be provided. If the balance on the bank account is more than 1500 USD, a certificate of employment may not be provided. If the period of work is less than 1 year, a bank statement is required.

  • Pensioners over 65 years old – a copy of the pension certificate. References and extracts are NOT REQUIRED!

Sponsoring is allowed (salary and/or account balance multiplied by the number of sponsored persons):

  1. Husband sponsors wife or husband’s wife – attach a copy of the marriage certificate
  2. Parents sponsoring children under 24 – attach a copy of the birth certificate. If the “child” is studying, attach a certificate from the university; if he works, but the salary is small, a certificate from work is still attached.
  3. Children sponsoring parents – attach a copy of the birth certificate. If the parents work, but the salary is small, still attach a certificate from the parents’ work.

For minors:

  • notarized permission from both parents to obtain a visa to Mexico for a child (not to be confused with consent to leave). Permission can be one from both parents for all children.
  • a photocopy of the birth certificate;
  • copies of passports of both parents;
  • if the child visits Mexico with one of the parents, it is necessary to provide a notarized written permission to export the child from the second parent + a copy of his passport;
  • if the second parent is absent, an appropriate document is provided (certificate of death, certificate from the registry office that the child is recorded according to the mother, etc.)

ATTENTION! The embassy has the right to change the rules for admission and the deadlines for processing documents without prior notice, and also has the right to request additional documents.

Mexico General Information

Italy Prehistory – Neolithic

Italy Prehistory – Neolithic

With the mitigated climate, with the disappearance of the Pleistocene fauna, extinct or transmigrated to give way to the current species, the Neolithic civilization is affirmed throughout Italy, characterized by the fixity of the dwelling, also built on purpose, by the smoothing of the stones, especially green ( jadeite, nephrite, chloromelanite, diorite, serpentine, porphyrite, etc.), from the regular practice of the inhumatory funeral rite, from the wide use of worked bone, from the development of ceramic art, agriculture alongside hunting and pastoralism, first textile industry. Against the assumptions of the past, now it is no longer believed that this civilization is the product of a great immigration of families from the East, but the result of a slow and gradual evolution. In western-central Europe, the hiatus that was previously admitted between the Paleolithic and Neolithic times is filled with transitional cultures (Azilian, Tardenoisian, Campignana, etc.): these successions are lacking in Italy, but the first germs of the new civilization can be seen in the environment itself. For example, the first attempts at ceramics (Caverna di Equi, in the Apuan Alps), found by other evidence collected in the European Upper Paleolithic (Belgium, France), harmonize with the presence of figured huts in the Franco-Cantabrian art of Solutréano -Magdaléniano, with the first polishing of stones in the Willendorf environment, with the same paleolithic constitution of the funeral rite accompanied by equipment and with the corpse in a crouched position; finally with the ascertainment of the deposits of green stones in our western Alps and in the Apennines, for which the idea of ​​the absolute importation of polished tools had to be repudiated. In addition to this, other links with the Pleistocene culture are: the continuation of the use of chipped flints, with the extensive use of spikes and lamellae and nuclei in Neolithic environments, and beyond, so much so that the distinction from the true Moustérian and Grimaldian types is sometimes uncertain, and above all the phenomenon of Paleolithic cultural persistence, which occurs widely in the Neolithic strata of Sicily, and in particular in the Lessini Mountains, on the Gargano, in certain localities of the Marche (Arceviese) and Umbria, and in the Vibrata Valley. In these places chipped tools similar to those of the gods were collected køkkenmødding  and the  French Campignien  (peaks,  tranchets ), so as to lead to the definition of a special civilization from Campania. that R. Battaglia tried to identify in time and space, while, according to the old idea of ​​Pigorini, it would be the transformation of the amygdalar industry, produced by the most primitive living tribes, isolated, set aside, in contact with the new civilizations .

Seriously opposed, especially due to the lack of stratigraphic support, the idea of ​​continuation, not only industrial, undeniable, but ethnic, is anything but repudiated, even if the demonstrative problem is serious.

First of all, the natural and geographical environments favor the idea, which is confirmed by the events of historical times (it is enough to remember the Ligurian cavemen fought by Rome); in the stations of the Lessini, which remained conservative until the last republican times of Rome, the instruments of the Campignano type are associated with rough Amygdalar and Solutréan shapes, and with polished stones and ceramics. Similarly occurs in the Arceviese, in the Vibrata Valley, and on the Gargano, where the very recent explorations of U. Rellini, F. Baumgaertel, R. Battaglia, confirm the belonging of the artifacts in question (for which Vaufrey proposed an indefinable  facies “Garganiana”) even at the full age of metals, as had been proven in the Arceviese. Future investigations will be able to demonstrate whether or not this Campania industry (or this “Garganiano”) was preceded by products more directly connected with amygdaloids, or if filling a gap, it should be considered in part almost a transitional layer, our own.

The Neolithic civilization, with its many industries, with its ways of dwelling (in huts, in natural caves, under rocky shelters), with its earthen sepulchres, in which the crouched position of the corpse also stands out, is spread by the circle alpine for the whole peninsula and the islands: foreign elements can already be seen flowing in, proof of the first land and sea trade, and also the first attestation of the attractive function that Italy will exercise above all in the following ages. But, although so widespread, its appearance is not uniform, and it is difficult to distinguish its oldest phase from the most recent one, above all due to the abundant superimposition of the layers belonging to the first age of metals, that is the Aeneolithic. An ancient Neolithic, was either short-lived or escapes research; a distinctive criterion from the final phase, more richly represented, was adopted by G. Chierici, L. Pigorini and P. Orsi, drawn from the lack or scarcity of fine or perfected lithic artefacts, such as the typical polished hatchets, perforated stones, acidic arrowheads. A fairly homogeneous group of rather archaic deposits can be assigned: the so-called Reggiano hut bottoms (Albinea, Rivaltella, Calerno, Campeggine) excavated by Chierici, other similar ones from Modenese and Bresciano and Mantovano, those of S. Biagio near Fano, Camerata on Lake Lèsina, some of the Vibrata Valley (v. Abruzzo) and Puglia, some stations in Trentino and some deposits of the Ligurian caves, the Cicchetti Cave in Materano and the Devil’s Cave at the end of the Salento peninsula . The settlements on the rock of Rumiano in Vayes (Val di Susa) and of Dos Trento (Trentino), the open-air station of Alba (Piedmont), which supplied a rich series of smooth stones, belong to a more recent, perhaps final phase. , the Ligurian caves of the Finalese (Arene Candide, Pollera, etc.) and those of the Carso, the inhabited areas of the Tremiti Islands and perhaps of Pantelleria, most of the hut villages of the Vibrata Valley, where for the first time the funds were discovered of hut by Concezio Rosa, and where the housing system lasted for a long time. The Neolithic of Sicily, represented by a homogeneous group of stations, among which Stentinello stands out in the Syracusan area (add: Matrensa, Tre Fontane, Poggio Rosso, Fontana di Pepe in the Catanese, Piano Notaro and S. Cono di Licodia Eubea), appears more recent of the peninsular,

Italy Prehistory - Neolithic

France Population Density and Distribution

France Population Density and Distribution

According to, the average density of the French population, 74 residents per sq. km. (1926), is the result of very different values. There are various causes of these differences, but in any case we can refer to certain general principles. The highest densities are found in urban and industrial regions, where only a constant increase is noted. The average densities are typical of the most fertile rural regions and especially those where once there was some industry (home weaving, small metallurgy, woodworking, etc.): in these regions the increase in the agricultural population has ceased, and the decrease it is often due to the disappearance of rural industries. The cultivation of cereals, even in the fertile plains, brings with it a relatively low population density, much lower than the average in France: this is especially noticeable in the Beauce. The cultivation of the vine, on the other hand, always carries relatively strong densities (côtes della Sciampagna, Burgundian Gold Coast and also the lowlands of the lower Languedoc); and the same can be said for the cultivation of vegetables and early fruits (Rhone valley, Brittany, etc.). Although it is not possible to establish the maxim that there is a constant relationship between the value of the land and the density of the population, nevertheless the villages of small properties are almost always more populated than those of large properties. The minimum densities are found in forest regions, which may also have a certain extent in the plains (eastern part of the Paris Basin, Gascony moors), but which generally occupy a greater surface area in the mountains (Alps, Jura, Vosges); and they are also found in regions with uncovered but absolutely sterile soil (savartsof Champagne). It goes without saying that the alpine area in the higher parts is depopulated and the subalpine area is largely sparsely inhabited.

The highest densities (see map) are found in the north of France and especially in the departments bordering Belgium: Nord (341), Pas-de-Calais (174). The presence of the most important French coal basin, giving rise to various industries, led to the intense renting of the population in this area but the population was very significant even before, due to the fact that, before the nineteenth century, a rational agriculture it was already coupled with some industries widespread in the countryside. Another dark spot marks Lower Normandy on the map (Lower Seine, 140); here too they are ancient rural industries (textiles), which are now concentrated around some cities, Rouen, Elboeuf, etc.: the presence of two of the largest ports in France (Le Havre and Rouen) favors their activity. The surroundings of Paris have, of course, a very dense population, and the maquis extends more and more, going up the valley of the Oise as far as Creil. Alsace has long been a very populated region; despite the existence of large forests, the average of the Bas-Rhin department reaches 191 residents per .; but at the foot of the Vosges there is the maximum density (250 and 300 residents per sq. km.) due to the vineyards and the large number of small industrial centers; this area extends through the Burgundy Gate towards Franche-Comté, throughout the cotton and metallurgical region of Belfort and Montbéliard, as far as Besançon. Brittany, although generally having a rather poor soil, is one of the most populated regions; but the strong densities are all confined to the coast (200 and in some points 250 residents per sq. km.), where are the best soils, with crops of first fruits, and almost all cities (fishing ports or commercial ports). The center and the south of France have very rare areas with a high density; some of them are due to the presence of coalfields, which, although less important than those in the north, have determined the development of large-scale industry (Le Creusot, Saint-Étienne). In Aquitaine, the Garonne valley, because of its fertility and its function as a trade route, contains numerous cities and large villages, which are dedicated to rich crops: vineyards, fruit trees and first fruits: the density is therefore considerable. The wine-growing plain of Lower Languedoc also has an above average density (100). The Saone-Rhône corridor, although of great commercial importance, is not all very populated: here the most extensive dark spot on the map is that due to the presence of Lyon, which is linked to the other of the coal basin of Saint-Étienne, and which, due to the ancient industries scattered here and there in this region, penetrates into the lower Dauphiné, thus reaching Grésivaudan, the only one of the great Alpine valleys that has densities over 100 residents. Another region with a high density and constant increase in population is the irrigated plain of Comtat (Avignon, Cavaillon, etc.). The surroundings of Marseille and Nice present the last areas with intense population.

The regions with the lowest density are not lacking even in the north of France: Champagne Pouilleuse with its savartsit is very depopulated (less than 20 residents per sq. km.), and the high Burgundian plateaus (Châtillonnais, plateau of Langres), covered with large forests, have low densities, which are continuously decreasing, as the iron industry has completely disappeared, once a source of some prosperity. This area joins the great forests of Lorraine. The Massif Central is very sparsely populated above 700 and 800 m. (high Limousin, high Cantal, Margeride and Aubrac, high Velay, high Vivarais). In Aquitaine, the Gascony moors have always been almost a desert. The rational exploitation of the pine forests has enriched the rare villages, without causing a notable increase in population (Landes, 28 residents per sq. Km.). The Alps are not as deserted as their heights would suggest.

Most of the wide valleys of the Savoy and the Dauphiné have areas with densities above the average of France, which push forward between the solitudes of the upper subalpine area and the alpine area itself. On the other hand, the Alpes de Provence are almost completely abandoned by men: deforestation has ruined the soil on the slopes: in a century, the relative population of some districts has been reduced by half, reaching less than 10 residents. per sq. km.

France Population Density and Distribution

The Formation of the Greek Religion Part II

The Formation of the Greek Religion Part II

Especially for the major gods the problem arises of their original relevance to one or the other of the ethnic components of the Greek religion, while in later developments it can be said that each of them incorporated elements of another origin and provenance. Protogreco is Zeus, the supreme god, as it appears from the name; but the myth of Zeus as a child is of Cretan origin. Hera is the wife of Zeus, but it may be that an Helladic and Mycenaean divinity (βοῶπις ad Argos) survives in her. Gea-Demeter, the Earth-mother, Posidon, the god of the humid element circulating in the earth and embracing the earth (Ποτειδάων: “the husband of the earth”), Hermes, the god of travelers, represented by herm or from the pillar, Hestia, the goddess of the home. Athena, from the non-Greek name, it is probably of non-Greek origin: the shield and the serpent especially mention Minoan connections (cf. the “snake goddess” of Knossos); but the name could have extended to an early Greek goddess. Minoan and Mycenaean in Artemis is at least the figured type according to the heraldic scheme of the “lady of the animals” πο0τνια (ϑηρῶν). Cretans are Dictinna and Britomarti, later assimilated to Artemis. Elladic of origin is Hyacinth, ancient god of Laconia, later absorbed by Apollo; perhaps also Ilizia (Eleusia; cfr. Eleusís), Persephone, Enialio: all non-Greek names. Apparently Apollo and Artemis are also not Greeks in name, which does not imply a pre-Greek origin, if it is true that they are Asian-oriental divinities adopted by the Greeks of Asia Minor and through them propagated in their own Greece.

Of Helladic origin are likely to be many local deities that have occurred had to take, if only because they were ab antique divine protectors and gentlemen of the places that we wanted to occupy, and as such had to pacify them. However, in general, they remained absorbed or in any way attracted into the orbit of some of the major divinities (Hyacinth attached to Apollo, etc.).

Even more important and equally difficult is the problem of the survivals of the Mycenaean religion, however constituted, within the Greek religion of historical times. Significant is the superimposition of the oldest temple of Athena on the acropolis of Athens, as well as of the temples of Era in Tiryns and Argos, on the site and on the ruins of the respective Mycenaean royal palaces. But this does not imply without the fact that the ancient Mycenaean goddess of private royal house worship has transformed into the polyiad goddess of the respective city. It is true that the Greek temple originated from the mégaron of the Mycenaean palace: it was the most splendid and largest part of the royal palace that provided the type for the abode of the sovereign deity, in the way that two thousand years later it will be a profane, but splendid, building of the Roman world – the basilica – to provide the prototype of Christian temples. But this same finding seems to imply, rather, also for that ancient period, a change, rather than a continuity, of religious conceptions. It would consist in the advent of a more human conception of divinity, which would express itself precisely in the need for a royal abode to house the great divine simulacrum: two things – the temple and the simulacrum – extraneous to the Mycenaean (and Minoan) religion, the whose sanctuaries were not temples and whose divinities were conceived and represented also in anthropomorphic form, but, apparently, in the outside the cult. On the other hand, the partially still visible splendor of the royal palaces of the Mycenaean era or the antiquity of their ruins appear sufficient or even preponderant reasons to explain the locationin situ of the cults of the new occupants, especially if rendered to ideally similar divinities.

The Mycenaean origin of much of Greek mythology seems better established. It has been observed (Nilsson) that the major centers of the Mycenaean civilization are also the centers of the major Greek mythical cycles: Mycenae of the cycle of the Atrides and of that of Perseus, Tiryns of the cycle of Heracles, Thebes of the cycle of Oedipus and of the Seven in Thebes, Orchomenus of the Minia cycle, etc. This makes it likely that Greek mythology was largely formed already in the Mycenaean era. Primitive elements contributed to its formation, as archaic and ethnically undifferentiated (prenational) as the aforementioned elementary forms of belief and worship, especially those typical motifs which in a given number belong to universal folklore. Perhaps also dating back to religious origins, but prey (their characters are perhaps ancient demonic gods), they decayed and survived on the fringes of religion when it changed. In Greece, where many local (pre-Hellenic) gods and demons were absorbed by the great divinities, also the connected folkloric mythical elements were inherited by the gods and incorporated into the true divine myth of a currently sacred and religious character, not without important consequences for history of the Greek religion and for its understanding up to modern times.

Ancient gods deprived of their original divine qualities and functions survive in several heroes, who are, alongside the gods, the main figures of Greek mythology. But the cult of heroes, together with the very concept of the hero, belongs to the religion of the dead and dates back to the Mycenaean age. In fact, the Mycenaean kings and the other characters of the princely houses were in death objects of veneration and worship, as shown by the numerous magnificent tombs discovered in Mycenae: the domed ones outside the city and those of the round enclosure on the acropolis, where the dead lay adorned with gold, with gold masks on their faces, “lords” in death as they had been in life, that is to say “heroes” (ῆρως “lord”, see “Ηρα). What were the beliefs of the Mycenaean age on life after death, we don’t know: it is likely that the heroes were assigned a different condition in the hereafter than that common to other mortals (cf. the transfer of heroes to the “islands of the blessed”). According to some, this belief is already expressed in the funerary scenes painted on the sarcophagus of Hagía Triáda. Even in certain myths, it seems that the human element, that is the reflection of historical events, is not to be excluded, p. ex. in those of the Trojan cycle and others (the Cretan thalassocracy would be overshadowed in the myth of Minos). On this point, new perspectives have recently opened up following the attempted deciphering of some cuneiform texts by Boğazköy, where it was believed (E. Forrer) to be able to read the name of the Achaeans (A ḫḫ iyava), as well as that of heroes such as Atreus (Attarissiyas), Eteocles (Tavagalavaas) and others. But these readings are much discussed (E. Meyer, Gesch. Des Alt., II, 1, 2ª ed., P. 546 ff., 537 ff.).

The origins of some mystery cults probably also date back to the Mycenaean age, apparently including the Eleusinian mysteries (see Eleusis).

The Formation of the Greek Religion 2

The Formation of the Greek Religion Part I

The Formation of the Greek Religion Part I

The religion of the “proto-Greek” people contributed to the primitivism of the Greek religion, which in the course of the second millennium BC. C. descended from the north into the Hellenic peninsula and that of the pre-Hellenic or “Helladic” or “Pelasgic” or “Carie” or whatever you want to call peoples, who had settled in the country before those invasions. Culturally, and most likely also politically, these Helladic people depended on Crete: perhaps they were also ethnically related to the Cretans, as well as to the residents of the other Aegean islands. Even their religion will have been in some respects akin to or dependent on the Cretan one of the Minoan era; but it cannot be excluded that in other respects it was original and independent. The penetration of the Protogrecì occurred in successive waves over the course of several centuries: the religion that the first comers brought with them was not identical to that of the last invaders. Those, having imposed their lordship, and with it their language, to the Helladic peoples, partly adopted their civilization for various respects superior to their own. Thus was formed the Mycenaean civilization. Like this, the Mycenaean religion is therefore a composite, syncretistic product, which explains its differences – alongside the many similarities – with respect to the Cretan Minoan religion. (This, like all Minoan civilization, is pre-Greek, and is of interest to Greek religious history only for the influences it exercised on the Mycenaean religion, and for those that the Greek religion then exercised on it at the time of Hellenization). With the’ last invasion of Protogenic peoples towards the end of the second millennium the Mycenaean civilization was dissolved. Even religion, uprooted from the continent, was transplanted by the vanquished fugitives on the islands and coasts of Asia Minor, where over time it became impoverished, while on the other hand it appropriated new elements of eastern Asian origin. But even in the continent it was not completely annulled, because some of its elements survived in latent form and then passed into the historical Greek religion.

It is very difficult to distinguish within the Mycenaean religion what was the contribution of the Protogenic peoples of distant northern origin from what was the patrimony of the primitive Helladic peoples, in which patrimony one should further distinguish what was originally Helladic from what was import or derivation Cretan. The problem does not even arise for those elementary religious forms which are common to all peoples in a phase of not very advanced civilization, and in Greece they can therefore be attributed to an earlier time not only to Homer (where they almost do not appear), but also to formation of the Mycenaean religion: prenational elements and virtually present aboriginein each of the ethnic components of historical Greek religion, both in the religion of the Protogenic immigrants and in that of the Elladics. In Arcadia, shaking an oak frond within a spring, a vapor appeared, which then condensed in the form of a small cloud, which attracted the soaking clouds (Paus., VIII 38, 4). A Crannon, in Thessaly, under drought epoch dragged a noisy metallic wagon with above a vessel to obtain a semblance of the sound of thunder, and then the same thunder, and with it the rain (Antig., Hist. Mir., 15). These are magical rites, intended to produce like with like (sympathetic magic), acting through a mysterious force inherent in the things employed and in the operations and gestures performed and – in other cases – in the words spoken, and therefore essentially independent of the intervention of a divinity (prey), even if eventually aggregated and incorporated into the cult of some god (for example the aforementioned arcade rite in the cult of Zeus Liceo). There are no sure traces of totemism in Greece, despite the attempts made to prove its existence (especially S. Reinach, in several essays: Cultes, Mythes et Religions, vols. 5, Paris 1908-1923). The conception of the soul as ψυχή is frankly animistic, that is, as a breath, breath, spirit: the spirit that comes out of the body when man dies, that goes out, but then re-enters him, if he had simply fainted like Andromache (Il., XXII, 467), or stunned as Sarpedon (Il., V, 696): this congenital lightness of the soul as spirit, breath, breath is reflected in the conception of the soul as a bird (Weicker, Der Seelenvogel in der antiken Literatur und Kunst, Leipzig 1902) or as a butterfly or bee or moth (O. Waser, Ûber die äussere Erscheinung der Seele in den Vorstellungen der Völker, zumal der alten Griechen, in Archiv f. Reliġ ionswiss., XVI, 1913, 336 ff.), As well as in the εἴδωλα reproducing the figure of the deceased, but with wings. The 30 stones that still at the time of Pausanias (VII, 22, 3) were venerated at Fare in Achaia, each with the name of a god, can be traced back to fetishism. Representatives of demonism are the numerous groups of Charites, Sirens, Harpies, Erinyes, Satyrs, Sileni, Centaurs, Loaves, etc., some of which, especially those more or less theriomorphic, recall the numerous hybrid figures that abound on the seals and others Mycenaean and Minoan art objects. These elementary religious forms, although ethnically indeterminable, nevertheless have great importance for the history of Greek religion, also in relation to the conspicuous flowering of analogous forms (especially magic) which took place in the last periods of Greek religious history.

The Formation of the Greek Religion 1

Germany Archaeology

Germany Archaeology

In Germany the systematic search of the various archaeological remains of the national territory has been organized for a long time. Currently important new results have been obtained by the Archaeological Prospecting Center created in 1959 at the Landesmuseum in Bonn; this center carried out extensive aerial photographic surveys in the Rhineland, uncovering a large number of archaeological remains from various periods: entrenched villages from the Neolithic, mounds from the Hallstatt civilization, urn fields, enclosures from the La Tène era, locally called Gräber-Gärten (Wederath, Kreis, BernKastel, etc.), Roman villas and farms and in particular castra del limes of Germany Superior et Inferior.

The buildings of the Augustan age of Xanten (Castra Vetera) have not yet been identified also due to the phenomenon of erosion and the change of course of the Rhine. The first field (Vetera I) with internal stone constructions was probably built under Claudius, but few traces are preserved. On the other hand, the Neronian buildings are well known and a detailed plan has been made. The archaeological remains of Vetera II are scarce and poorly known, built by Vespasian after the events of 69 AD (Civil revolt) on the other bank of the west arm of the Rhine.) which attest, in the Augustan-Tiberian age, the existence of a military installation. Destroyed as a result of the riots of 69 AD, it was rebuilt and experienced various phases not documented with precision. Probably abandoned at the beginning of the 2nd century, the name does not appear in Antonino’s Itinerary. Following recent excavations it seems that also in Gelduba (Krefeld-Gellep) there was a small settlement of the Ubii, of which some traces have been found on the ground. In 69 a marching camp was built there for the troops from Superior Germany in the fight against Civil. Of this field only a few traces remain (parallel ditches, weapons, ceramics); around 71-75 AD was built near a castellum which underwent at least ten successive phases of construction up to the 4th century. The excavations made it possible to study the principia, the left door principalis and numerous moats. The Novaesium field (Neuss) is archaeologically well known. Currently it has been possible to establish a succession of twelve construction periods under Augustus and Tiberius. The best known phase of the encampment, the only one for which a detailed plan of the internal installations exists, is that of the Claudian age, to which the stone architecture of the buildings dates back. The existence of the canabae seems to be attested by the Tiberian age and a civil agglomeration developed there throughout the imperial period.

In Cologne, new clues have made it possible to establish the limits of the legionary camp of the Tiberian age, delimited in particular by a series of ovens for potters, who are currently considered dependent on the legionary camp. A part of the defensive system and the decumana gate were found of the military installations. The topography of the residential area of ​​Colonia Claudia-Ara Agrippinensis is also known: the ancient praetorium del campo was transformed into a palace with arcades intended for the governor of the province. Recently a mithraeum has been found and the remains of a theater and the site of the amphitheater located outside the walls have been brought to light; furthermore, the discovery of a series of towers and some sections of the walls made it possible to better understand the function of the outer wall that protected the city for the whole empire. As for the cities and the neighborhoods recently discovered, very little known is the ancient agglomeration of Neumagen (Noviomagus); only a few coins and ceramics (in addition to the famous reliefs) attest to its activity from the 1st to the 3rd century. An important craft and trade center has been located in Pachten (Contiomagus?). Rare are the traces relating to the 1st century AD. C., while much more numerous are those pertinent to the 2nd and especially to the 3rd and 4th centuries. A neighborhood of potters has been traced to the western edge of the vicus ; moreover, a sanctuary surrounded by a wall framed a temple with a square cell and portico and a monoptero temple dedicated to Pritona; the complex was to be flanked by a theater. A few years ago an important agglomeration built with an orthogonal plan was excavated in Schwarzennacker, on the Trier-Strasbourg road; the vicus it had to have an exclusively agricultural character. Systematic excavations of the site have revealed a residential neighborhood. The excavation of the Pesch sanctuary has recently been resumed; Remodeled several times, the temples often show traces overlapping and difficult to interpret: however, two main periods of occupation have been possible (in the 1st century and from the 2nd to the 4th century AD). The constructions of the second stage are of a very particular shape: the large central enclosure must have constituted a covered place; neither the destination nor the date of the singular temple B or basilica is clear, a square-plan building with a rectangular apse, divided into three naves by two rows of columns: the originality of the building suggests a mystery cult. The most important cult of the sanctuary must have been that of the Matronae Vacallinehae of which about three hundred inscriptions have been discovered. A new temple dedicated to the Matronae has been found in the same region in Zingsheim. A new cult complex was recently unearthed in Hunsrück, in Heckenmünster-Wallenborn, consisting of three temples, two of which are Celtic-type and the third has an orthogonal plan: there are annexes of the spa buildings. Built at the end of the 1st century AD. C., the sanctuary was abandoned at the end of the 3rd century.

After 1960, laboratory researches relating to ceramics multiplied, making it possible to better clarify the techniques of manufacture and to distinguish their origins. The importation of the “Italic sealed earth” and the importance it has for the dating of the places of discovery has been demonstrated once more by the recent discovery, in Haltern, of a potter’s workshop with fragments of molds for processing. of chalices imitating the Arezzo vases. The relationship between the Trier, Sinzig and Rheinzabern workshops and the master craftsmen operating in Mittelbronn and in the Moselle area etc. was also studied, and the influence of these in the production of the branches located further east was underlined. In this context, the recent discovery in Novaesium of Sigillata from central Gaul from the 2nd and 3rd centuries should be mentioned.

Germany Archaeology

Brazil Figurative Arts Part 2

Brazil Figurative Arts Part 2

Among the disciples of Grandjean de Montigny are José Maria Jacintho Rebello (1821-1872), architect and landscape painter, and Francisco Joaquim Bittencourt da Silva, sculptor and architect; among those of Auguste Taunay, there are the sculptors José Joaquim Allão, José Jorge Duarte, Xisto Antonio Pires, Candido Matheus Faria and others; among those of Marco Ferrez, the sculptor Francisco Manuel Chaves Pinheiro (1882-1884). In painting, many foreigners flourished in Rio de Janeiro at this time, some of whom were educated in art by the members of the French commission. We name the Italians Eduardo De Martino, who illustrated the landscape and military history of Brazil with vigor and vivacity, Luigi Santoro and Alessandro Biagini. Among the Brazilian painters he distinguished himself, in addition to numerous disciples of Debret: Manuel de Araujo Porto-Alegre, then baron of Santo Angelo (1806-1879), distinguished poet and writer, who also carried out his activity in teaching and diplomacy, whose paintings attest to a good command of technical means, imagination and color. We remember:D. Pedro I, Visconde de Araguaya, Luiza Rosa benfeitora from Santa Casa, a Ceia (Dome of the Santa Casa), Passagem do Vermelho Tues., coroação de D. Pedro II, not finished. Among the continuers of French teaching, Porto-Alegre is the culminating figure.

While in the capital there was such an intense movement, in the provinces there were nuclei that were not without importance. The Province of St. Paul produces excellent painter José de Almeida Iunior Fleming, author of O Lenhador, Os caipiras, Picador de smoke, Amola ç AO interrompida; that of Bahia, Felix Pereira, Manuel Ignacio da Costa, Feliciano de Aguiar, Bento José Rufino, Joaquim Tourinho, Olympio Freire da Motta and Firmino Monteiro; those of Pernambuco, Pará, Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Sul, other valiant artists, especially painters. We also remember, in Pará, the Italians Domenico de Angelis, painter and sculptor, Pignatelli, Righini, Capranesi, the portrait painters Centofante and Rocattani, and the architect Calandrini.

But the highest artistic expressions are found, under the empire, in “heroic” or “historical” painting determined by the long war with Paraguay: when Brazil affirmed its South American supremacy, Brazilian art also reached its maximum splendor for especially the work of Pedro Americo and Victor Meirelles, to whom Brazil owes a vast work in battle pictures and other genres of painting.

Victor Meirelles de Lima (Santa Catharina, 1832-1903), che studiò anche to Rome and Parigi, compose, fra moltissime altre pitture: S. John the Baptist in carcere (1859), First Mass, Moema, First outcasts, Riachuelo Battle, Battle of Guararapes, Pass Humaytá, Sticking ç to, flagella ç will of Christ, Pledge Princeza Regent Lady Dona Isabel Countess d’Eu in 1872, Sagra ç will of the Church of Candelaria in 1899. Lasciò numerosi discepoli.

Next to him Pedro Americo de Figueiredo and Mello (Parahiba do Norte, 1843-1905), a follower of the classical ideal, he painted historical paintings, including Avahi, Campo – Grande and Batalha de S. Martino, requested by the Italian government. They are also its Petrus to vincula, Colombo, Moysés no Nile, two portraits: David and Pedro II, Socrates Alcibiades afastando dos bra ç os do vicio, S. Marcos, A visão de S. Paulo, Cabesa de S. Jeronymo, Paz and Concordia and many other paintings, made in Brazil, in Paris, in Italy. Success smiled on him, and he received many honors especially from D. Pedro II.

After 1889, the republic was proclaimed, art did not cease to progress. In all the capitals of the confederation, and mainly in Rio de Janeiro, a vivifying breath revives painting and sculpture and also gives architecture a new luxuriance such as had not yet been seen in Brazil, with the monumental reconstruction of many cities. The renewed fervor for ancient Brazilian colonial art is no stranger to this luxuriance.

Manáos, in the heart of the Amazon, builds important buildings. Belém del Pará follows with the same renewing spirit. In this city we remember the architect José de Castro Figueiredo, the sculptors Wolfang Miranda, Nicephoro Moreira, Guilherme Pearce, Henrique Dumont, Giulietta Franca, and the painters Antonio dos Santos Gaspar, also architect and sculptor, Chaves Pinheiro and Bittencourt da Silva. S. Paolo boasts an excellent academy.

In the recent reconstruction of the federal capital, most of the engineers and architects have had: Frontin, Heitor de Mello, Souza Aguiar, Del Vecchio, Alfredo Lisboa, Francisco Bicalho, Vieira Souto, Silva Lara, Ernesto da Cunha de Araujo Vianna, Antonio de Paula Freitas, Carlos Sampaio, Sampaio Corrêa and many others. We remember the sculptors Candido Caetano de Almeid, in Reis, Hortensio Cordoville José Octavio Corrêa Lima and Rodolfo Bernardelli, born in Mexico, but Brazilian by election, for many years director of the academy, author of numerous works, among which we note O Christo ea adultera, the Descobrimento do Brasil group ; the equestrian statues of Osorio and Duque de Caxias. Finally, we also mention the painters Decio Villares, Aurelio de Figueiredo, Henrique Bernardelli, brother of Rodolfo, Parreiras, Baptista da Costa, Belmiro de Almeida, Rodolfo Amodeo, Pedro Weingärtner, Eugenio Latour, Helio Silinger, and others.

Brazil Figurative Arts 2

Brazil Figurative Arts

Brazil Figurative Arts

The history of art in Brazil can be divided into two distinctly distinct periods, a colonial and an autonomous period.

In Portugal, architecture flourished late and did not always have a chronological development corresponding to that of the rest of Europe. The Romanesque style spread there when it was abandoned in other countries, and did not last long; longer the Gothic, which left numerous vestiges there. The Manueline is the Gothic style transformed as a plastic symbol to the Portuguese aspiration towards the sea and conquest. Cultivated during the reigns of John II and Manuel I, it declined in the face of the classicism that resurfaced throughout the old continent. Thus the Greek-Roman neoclassical succeeded the Portuguese Gothic.

Religious architecture was imported to Brazil by the Jesuits, who adopted Greco-Roman classicism, eliminating what it smacked of pagan, and seeking maximum exterior simplicity in contrast with the sumptuousness of the interiors: they raised facades that were often cold, bare, inelegant, with a pediment curved or triangular, with one or two towers topped by a tetrahedron. It is the so-called Jesuit style; but in truth the Jesuits did not introduce their own artistic style, which they did not have, but they transported Portuguese and Italian Baroque, with its strengths and defects, to Brazil. The plethora of ornaments which, inside, sometimes came to hide the architectural structure, is found, in fact, also in non-Jesuit churches.

Among the main monuments we must remember the tower of Olinda, erected in 1535 by the first donor of Pernambuco, Duarte Coelho, and whose ruins still existed in the middle of the century. XVIII. Besides it, Olinda, one of the richest cities in Brazil, had various monasteries, the church of the Savior, fortresses, etc.

In the century XVI we find the names of the architect Antonio Pires, Jesuit, of the sculptor Diogo Jacome, of the architect Manuel Fernandes, in Pernambuco (1585), and of the Capuchin Francisco dos Santos, who directed the construction of the monasteries of St. Francis, in Olinda and Parahiba. The most important constructions of this century are the Jesuit colleges of S. Paolo (1554), Rio de Janeiro (1570), of S. Salvador (1572) and Olinda (1576), for which marble blocks were transported to Brazil. in Europe.

Conspicuous was the building activity in Brazil during the century. XVIII and among the most notable buildings that arose at that time in Rio de Janeiro, the church of the Military Cross (1735), the Arches aqueduct (1751), the Opera House (1767), which burned down and replaced from the Manuel Luiz theater (1769); in Belém del Pará, the cathedral (1748), the most majestic in Brazil, the government palace (1761), designed by Lande, the fortress of Macapá (1764), designed by the military engineer HA Galussi, and a house of Mercy (1787); in Minas Geraes the church of Caeté (1757); in Bahia, the church of Bomfim.

Not a few sculptors flourish in Pernambuco and Bahia, of which the main one is Chagas, called Cabra, from Bahia, author of images of a deeply human painful expression, which are found in the church of the Carmelite tertiaries. Among them, the group of Pains, S. John and the Magdalene, the Virgin, the Child Jesus, and the Madonna del Carmelo.

Many artists of Bahia were of Mineira origin, since in the province of Minas Geraes the flourishing of the arts followed the prosperity deriving from the exploitation of gold and other mines. The greatest representative of this particularly brilliant period of Brazilian art was Antonio Francisco Lisboa (1730-1814), called the Aleijadinho following physical deformity. Abandoning himself first to loves and revelries, then becoming a solitary misanthrope, he gave rise to poetic legends around his name; disseminated his works in the province of Minas, especially in Ouro Preto, S. João d’El-Rey, Marianna, Congonhas, Santa Luzia and Sabará. He is the author of the twelve great Prophetsin the church of NS de Mattosinhos in Congonhas do Campo. He was responsible for the churches of S. Francesco d’Assisi in Our0 Preto and S. João d’El-Rey.

Another notable artist was the half-caste Mestre Valentim, that is Valentim de Fonseca and Silva (1750-1813), the most famous of the colonial sculptors and architects, to whom many works in Rio de Janeiro are owed. He left a school, to which José Carlos Pinto, Simeão José de Nazareth, Francisco de Paula Borges, etc. belonged. Other contemporaries are: José da Conceição, Simão da Cunha, Seraphim dos Anjos, Antonio de Padua, Martinho de Brito, sculptor and painter, and Xavier das Conchas.

In the early years of the century. XIX, political transformations affect the destinies of art. Various and important institutes are founded in the capital, such as the naval, medical, military and fine arts academies, the schools of commerce, agriculture and botany, the library and the museum. The Viceroy Count of Arcos builds a large palace, which later renovations have changed character. Of the same time are the Quinta de S. Christovam (later an imperial palace, and today a national museum) and the S. Giovanni theater, today S. Pedro de Alcantara.

We can consider as the father of painting, in Bahia, Eusebio de Mattos Guerra (1620 or 1624-1692), brother of the poet Gregorio de Mattos, and author of canvases praised by biographers, but dispersed or largely lost. Towards the middle of the following century, Josè Joaquim da Rocha, mineiro of origin, admirable for his activity, and for his fervent and disinterested teaching, flourished, also in Bahia, and the Jesuit Alexandre de Gusmão, author, among other things, of a Nativity. The main works of JJ da Rocha are preserved in numerous churches. His best disciples were Lopes Marques, Antonio Dias, Antonio Pinto, Ramos Nunes da Motta, Souza Coutinho, José Theophilo de Jesus, Jose Verissimo, Lourenço Machado and Franco Vellasco (1778-1833), the most spontaneous of the school and very fruitful portrait painter. He too left behind disciples of merit: Bento José Campinam (1791-1874), José Rodrigues Nunes (1800-1881) and others. Then the decline of Bahian painting begins, and the center of the arts becomes Rio de Janeiro which had already had an artistic tradition and where the oldest painter was a Flemish friar Ricardo do Pilar (end of the 17th century), who in the monastery of S Bento painted numerous pictures, and was compared, for life, to Fra Giovanni da Fiesole.

From this old Fluminense school we mention: José de Oliveira (1690-1763), João de Souza, João Florencio Muggio, the half-caste Cunha (1737-1809), vigorous artist, author, among other things, of the portrait of the Count of Bobadella, Leandro Joaquim (1738-1798), painter and architect, Raimundo da Costa e Silva, painter and sculptor, and Francisco Solano Benjamin, painter. At the beginning of the century. XIX we note in Rio de Janeiro the arrival of a peregrine artist, Manuel Dias de Oliveira Brasiliense (died in 1831), known as the Roman, having studied in Rome; of his vast work Remember: A Sant’Anna, a Conception (the National Gallery), a head S. Paulon ivory, several portraits and landscapes. Another excellent portraitist was José Leandro de Carvalho (1750-1831). In the beginning of the century. The engravers Romão Eloy de Almeida, João José de Souza and José Fernandez Portugal also flourished in the 19th century, the latter also a cartographer.

The starting point of the autonomous period of Brazilian art can be assigned to the year 1816, when Dom John VI called to Rio de Janeiro a commission of French artists, organized by J. Le Breton, and composed of the Taunay brothers (Nicolas and Auguste), by Debret, Grandjean de Montigny, Dillon, Bonrepos, Levavasseur, Meunié, Ovide, Enout, Level, Pilite, Fabre, Roy (father and son), Ferrez (Zefirino and Marco). Only after many difficulties were they able to work usefully and make numerous disciples. The French influence had beneficial effects, and brought Brazil into contact with the modern art movement.

Brazil Figurative Arts

Franco-German War of 1870

Franco-German War of 1870

Franco-German War of 1870/71, war between France and the North German Confederation under the leadership of Prussia. Last of the so-called wars of unification.

The cause of the war was v. a. In the will of O. von Bismarck , after the victories of Prussia in 1866/67, to secure its hegemony in continental Europe permanently, domestic political difficulties in France came in handy.

The external reason was the question of the “Hohenzollern candidacy for the throne” in Spain (Emser Depesche). On July 19, 1870, France declared war. While a Franco-Austrian alliance did not come about in time, the southern German states sided with Prussia. From the Palatinate, three German armies under Crown Prince Friedrich, Prince Friedrich Karl and K. F. von Steinmetz (with H. Graf von Moltke as Chief of Staff), mobilized in the shortest possible time, advanced and took the initiative.

They won at Weißenburg (4.8.), Wörth and Spichern (6.8.). The French Rhine Army under F. A. Bazaine was thrown into the fortress of Metz and enclosed in the battles at Colombey-Nouilly, Vionville-Mars-la-Tour and Gravelotte-Saint-Privat (August 14th to 18th). In an attempt to relieve Bazaine, the French Marshal M. Mac-Mahon was pushed to Sedan and surrounded there; his entire army surrendered on September 2, Napoleon III. got into captivity with her.

After the French Republic was proclaimed (September 4), the German armies advanced on Paris and closed it on September 15. on. Metz capitulated on October 27th. The armies set up by L. Gambetta in the south and north for the liberation of Paris were defeated at Orléans, Le Mans, Amiens and Saint-Quentin in December 1870 and January 1871.

Fearing that the neutrals would interfere, O. von Bismarck tried to hasten the fall of Paris and pushed through the bombardment of the fortress against the military leadership. An armistice was signed on January 28, 1871. Only in eastern France was there still fighting; on 1.2. the French Eastern Army was forced by the newly formed German Southern Army under E. Freiherr von Manteuffel to cede to Switzerland at Pontarlier, where they were interned.

Already on January 18th King Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in Versailles (foundation of the German Empire). On February 26 the preliminary peace of Versailles was concluded; on May 10th followed the Peace of Frankfurt. The obligation contained therein to evacuate the occupied French territories was fulfilled by Germany on September 16, 1873.

Air France

Air France [.epsilon. ː r Frà ː s], short for Compagnie Nationale Air France [k ɔ pa ɲ i nasj ɔ nal -], abbreviation AF [ ɑ eF], leading French airline, founded in 1933, Headquarters: Paris. 1990 Participation in Air Inter (merged with it since 1997) and takeover of the private airline UTA (Union des Transports Aériens). In 2000 she founded the airline alliance Skyteam with Delta Airlines Inc., Aeromexico and Korean Air. In 2003, AF carried 42.9 million passengers to 192 international destinations with a fleet of 360 aircraft. In 2004 there was a merger with the Dutch airline KLM to form Allianz Air France-KLM with the Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Amsterdam-Schiphol hubs. Under the umbrella of the holding company, Air France and KLM continued to exist as independent companies, which together flew to 328 destinations in 118 countries in 2017 (passenger volume: 98.7 million). Turnover (2017): € 25.78 billion, employees (2016): 84,600.

French Revolution

French Revolution, epoch of French history that lasted from 1789 to 1799 and during which the old rule (ancien régime) was forcibly removed.

The French Revolution was caused by abuses such as the arbitrary rule of kings, steadily increasing national debt with a simultaneous increase in the tax burden and famine. It was rooted in the mind Enlightenment.

After the Estates General (clergy, nobility, third estate) had been convened in May 1789 because of the government’s financial difficulties, the third estate declared itself to be the constituent national assembly. With the storming of the Bastille (the old state prison in Paris) on July 14th, the open uprising began (July 14th became a national holiday).

The National Assembly decided on profound changes: it proclaimed human rights, created the centralized administrative system with the départements and abolished the privileges of the nobility and clergy. Leading people were GJ Danton and Jean Paul Marat (1743–93). The National Convention, the new parliament (since 1792), decided to abolish kingship; Louis XVI was executed in 1793.

The Welfare Committee (the executive organ of the National Convention) headed by M. de Robespierre and the National Convention exercised a reign of terror.

After the fall of Robespierre and his execution (1794), a board of five convent members took over the government in 1795. The internal failures (bankruptcy of the state in 1797) and the foreign policy defeats in the Revolutionary Wars led to Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup in 1799 and the dissolution of the Directory.

The general slogan of the French Revolution (“Freedom, Equality, Fraternity”) remained a demand made again and again by the champions for the Human rights.

Franco-German War of 1870


Hungarian Music

Hungarian Music

Hungarian music, name for Hungarian folk music, which can be divided into two layers in the unanimous folk song.

An older one with semitone pentatonic and parlando rubato performance, a younger one with a seven-step scale and rhythmically strict performance. Folk musical instruments include in addition to various forms of the violin, a cello-like instrument (gardon), dulcimer (cimbalom), hurdy-gurdy (tekerő), magnetic flute (furulya) and a popular oboe (tárogató).

Hungarian art music begins with Gregorian chants as well as vernacular epics and the work of foreign musicians at the Hungarian royal court (around 1000). Central and western European immigrants (since the 12th century) brought their music with them; traveling musicians and students mediated the exchange with the rest of Europe; Hungarian dances (Ungaresca) have been an integral part of the pan-European repertoire since the end of the 15th century.

During the Turkish rule (from 1526) and the tripartite division of the country (from 1541), historical chants (rhyming chronicles, political songs) lived on, especially in the Austrian part; Protestant and Hussite chant elements complemented the popular sacred song. Art music was used by the aristocratic courts, churches, monasteries and, in some cases, schools.

Between 1690 and 1711 the »Kurutzenlieder« were created, a combination of historical song and folk song with Slovak, Romanian and Polish features (e.g. the »Rákóczi-way«). In the middle of the 18th century the Verbunkos appeared. János Bihari (* 1764, † 1827), János Lavotta (* 1764, † 1820) and A. Csermák. Verbunkos and its branches in Csárdás and urban song as well as liberty and student songs form a folk style that was considered typical of Hungarian music from 1790 to the 20th century.

Liszt, Mihály Mosonyi (* 1815, † 1870) and F. Erkel created national Hungarian music with a romantic character. At Liszt close ödön mihalovich (* 1842, † 1929) and J. Hubay directly. The works of E. von Dohnányi and Leó Weiner (* 1885, † 1960) are in the German romantic tradition; Erwin Lendvai (* 1882, † 1949) is considered an important choral composer. Modernism includes Sándor Jemnitz (* 1890, † 1963), László Lajtha (* 1892, † 1963) and F. Farkas.

The most important Hungarian composers, B. Bartók and Z. Kodály, were also well-known folk music researchers and used original peasant music in their compositions. Bartók fuses national, folk music material with highly developed compositional methods. Kodály’s conception as a composer and teacher is based on folk music and has created the basis of a new Hungarian musical culture through a broad choral movement and a system of music schools, especially since 1945; it has received international attention as a model since the late 1950s.

As a teacher, Kodály trained several generations of composers, including P. Kadosa, Ferenc Szabó (* 1902, † 1969), Rudolf Maros (* 1917, † 1982) and P. Járdányi; worked abroad M. Seiber, A. Doráti and S. Veress. The contemporary music represented inter alia. G. Kurtág, G. Ligeti, Emil Petrovics (* 1930, † 2011), Sándor Szokolay (* 1931, † 2013), István Láng (* 1933), Z. Durkó, Attila Bozay (* 1939, † 1999), P. Eötvös, R. Wittinger and Z. Kocsis. In order to participate in the international development of music, some composers, musicologists and musicians – including Zoltán Jeney (* 1943, † 2019), László Sáry (* 1940) and László Vidovsky (* 1944) founded the »Studio for New Music (* 1944) in  1970 «(Uj Zenei Stúdió), with which they broke with tradition, drawing on the music of J. Cage. Encouraged by this group, but also withdrawn from it, other composer associations such as the »Group of Young Composers« (Zeneszerzók Csoportja) and the »Group 180« (180-as Csoport) were founded in the 1980s.


Szeged [ sεgεd], German Szegedin [ sεgεdi ː n], capital of the district Csongrád, Southeast Hungary, on both sides of the Tisza near the mouth of the Maros, near the border with Romania and Serbia (Wojwodina), (2018) 161 100 residents.

Catholic bishopric; University (founded in Kapozsvár / Cluj-Napoca in 1872, re-establishment of the Hungarian University in Szeged, which closed there in 1919/20, in 1921), other universities, microbiological research institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, biotechnological center, national theater, conservatory, Ferenc Móra museum, botanical Garden. The food industry is important, especially salami and pepper production (Szeged is the center of the most important Hungarian paprika growing area), as well as mechanical engineering, furniture, textile and leather industries, tobacco processing, tire factory; in Algyő oil and gas production; Transport hub with inland port and airfield.

Demetriusturm (12th to 13th centuries, tower of the former Demetrius Church); Remains of a castle (13th century); Marienkirche (end of the 15th century) with baroque furnishings; neo-Romanesque cathedral with two 93 m high towers, built at the beginning of the 20th century to commemorate the flood disaster of 1879; neo-baroque town hall (1883); Town houses mainly from the 17th century.

On the already around 2000 BC Béla IV. Had a castle built in the 13th century. The important medieval salt transhipment point became a royal free town in 1498 and was under Turkish rule from 1543–1686. In 1879 a flood destroyed almost the entire city. In 1919, Szeged was the starting point for the counter-revolutionary movement to overthrow the Hungarian Soviet Republic.


Miskolc [ Wed ʃ Kolts], capital of the county of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Northern Hungary, on the eastern edge of the Bükk, (2018) 155 700 residents.

Industrial center; University (founded in 1949 as a TU for heavy industry), metallurgical open-air museum, etc. Museums; Iron and steel industry in the Diósgyőr district (decline during the 1990s), mechanical engineering, paper and food industries. The Tapolca district with its underground caves and lakes is a health resort (thermal springs).

The Gothic church on Avasberg (middle of the 13th century) was rebuilt several times; rebuilt after a fire in 1560–69. The castle ruins in the Diósgyőr district date from the 13th century; it houses a museum and is the scene of the annual castle festival.

Miskolc goes back to a Scythian settlement; Proven as a wine market in 1365, free royal town in 1405; came to royal Hungary after 1526 (Battle of Mohács), then was briefly Transylvanian. Located in the border area, Miskolc suffered from Ottoman raids and double taxation. Miskolc was a center of early industrialization (hammer and stamp mills, oldest blast furnace at the beginning of the 19th century).

Hungarian Music

Lesotho Landmarks

Lesotho Landmarks

Ha-Khotso rock art

The Bushmen in southern Africa were not only successful hunters – they also felt the need to capture their everyday lives for eternity and to scratch paintings in rocks. The drawings not far from the village of Ha Khotso north of Roma in the Kingdom of Lesotho are among the oldest on our globe. The exact age of this San legacy has not yet been determined – but some experts assume that the drawings are several thousand years old. These rock carvings are a popular travel destination during Lesotho tours and can be reached on a day trip from the capital Maseru.

The San people – nomads in Africa

The people in Lesotho call this place Ha Boroana – which translates as “The little San”. In a rock face that slopes sharply, you will find numerous well-preserved and sometimes even artistic drawings from everyday hunting. They were a tribe of nomads who skillfully adapted to changes in nature and moved with the stream of prey. The San can still be found in the south of the Black Continent – especially in South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana and Namibia.

The drawings of a natural religion?

Many of the drawings that can be admired in Ha Khotso are astonishingly large – others are tiny. But they always show the San’s prey. These were especially antelopes and wildebeest. Scientists are still puzzling about what moved these ethnic primitive people to draw animals in many places. Some assume that they must have been animal gods – an indication that a kind of natural religion was already practiced by humans back then.

A footpath leads to the rock overhang

If you want to visit this remarkable rock individually, you should orientate yourself in the village of Nazareth according to the signs there. A footpath leads to a gorge and finally to the pictures on the rock. Not far from this site is the fortress of Thaba Bosiu, where only ruins and tombs remain of the former residence of the king.

Sehlabathebe National Park

untouched nature in the Maloti Mountains

Sehlabathebe National Park is a secluded park in Lesotho. It is located in the southeast corner of the small state on the border with South Africa in the Drakensberg. Together with the neighboring Drakensberg National Park, it forms a cross-border nature reserve. The highest peaks of the Drakensberg with an average of 2,400 meters are located in the Sehlabathebe National Park, where the Maloti Mountains are called.

Breathtaking natural landscapes

Sehlabathebe is Lesotho’s oldest national park, founded in 1969 by the country’s first prime minister and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Due to its impressive landscape, the sparsely populated park is a popular destination for study travelers and photographers. It enchants with endless grass steppes overgrown with colorful wild flowers and bizarre sandstone formations with caves, deep gorges and spectacular rock overhangs. In more than 60 places there are impressive ancient rock paintings by the South African peoples of the San.

The region is characterized by numerous rivers, crystal clear mountain lakes, rushing waterfalls and rock pools. The most important attraction in the park is the Tsoelikane waterfall, whose rock pool invites you to take a refreshing dip when the temperature is right. The wetlands are home to rich flora and fauna. In addition to rare bearded vultures and numerous species of birds, roebuck, gazelle-like oribis, wild cats, jackals, baboons and mongooses can be seen there. Far away from civilization, flocks of sheep graze on the vast grasslands. The shepherds are wrapped in traditional colorful woolen blankets and wear a pointed straw hat.

Excursions and activities

The park, which is difficult to access, is best explored by tourists on foot, on horseback or in an off-road vehicle. In the unique secluded landscape, hikes, riding excursions and climbing tours lasting several days are offered by various agencies accompanied by local guides. Some hut camps and well-equipped lodges are available for overnight stays. There is also the possibility of pitching a tent everywhere. The climate in Lesotho is moderately warm due to the altitude. In the winter months from June to August there is partial frost in the high regions.

Libya study trips and round trips

Libya is the fourth largest country on the African continent – however, about 90% of the area is covered by deserts, so that life primarily takes place within the 2,000 km long coastal strip on the Mediterranean Sea and in the oases spread all over the country. Otherwise, the landscape forms a plain that begins at the Tunisian border and extends to the Jabal Akhdar region, the more hilly Libyan inland, dune landscapes and karst mountains. A geographical peculiarity of Libya is that it is one of the few countries on earth that does not have a permanent river. In view of this, you can expect either a warm Mediterranean climate, which is ideal for a beach holiday – or there is an extreme desert climate, in which the values ​​in summer are still around 26 ° C at night and in which there can be night frost in winter. Nevertheless, a tour through the Sahara is definitely recommended… preferably in the first few months of the year. Libya is also culturally interesting because the country looks back on a long history. The rock paintings in Acacus are probably the oldest evidence of civilization. Thousands of engravings adorn the rocky massif, which are estimated to date back to 12,000 BC. And were continued until the 1st century AD – which resulted in a unique writing of history that has long been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. As well as the ruins of Leptis Magna and Sabratha from the Roman era. Libya offers you archaeological sites in the Mediterranean area of ​​outstanding quality.

Sehlabathebe National Park Lesotho

Oberammergau Passion Play

Oberammergau Passion Play

Every ten years the Upper Bavarian municipality of Oberammergau hosts one of the most traditional performances in Germany, the Oberammergau Passion Play. The performances are not only the most famous passion plays in the world, since 2014 they have also been part of the nationwide register of intangible cultural heritage, which, like the UNESCO World Heritage Site, is of particular importance for the preservation of intangible values.

The first performance took place in 1634, when, after a devastating year of plague, the townspeople had vowed to regularly perform a passion play if they were freed from the plague. This tradition has continued to this day, despite temporary bans, including in the 18th century by the clergy of Elector Maximilian III. Joseph, held, and still nearly the entire ward is attending the games.

The text, which has been continuously expanded and redesigned over time, focuses on the last five days in the life of Christ; depending on the staging, there are also living images with scenes from the Old Testament or from the history of the games. After the Second Vatican Council at the end of the 1960s, which documented that the Jews are not guilty of Jesus’ death, the image of the Jews in the play was fundamentally revised at the request of the Catholic Church with the cooperation of various Jewish organizations. The music of the Passion Play, on the other hand, which comes from the pen of Oberammergau teacher and composer Rochus Dedler (1779–1822), has remained the same since it was first performed in 1810.

The planning and rehearsals for the Oberammergau Passion Play always begin several years before the performances. The whole community is entitled to vote in the selection of the director, actors and staging. The games not only represent an important cultural and religious tradition, they also represent an important economic factor with their more than 500,000 visitors from all over the world. Above all, the Passion Play Oberammergau is suitable for every visitor due to the dedication and intensity of its actors unforgettable experience.


Regensburg is one of the oldest German cities and has been continuously settled since Celtic times. The capital of the Upper Palatinate district is the fourth largest city in Bavaria. It has around 140,300 inhabitants, who are spread over the extensive urban area on both banks of the Danube. Regensburg is a bishopric and an important tourist center in Eastern Bavaria.

Regensburg for culture lovers and study travelers

Regensburg has more than 1,300 architectural monuments. On a tour through the city, the Regensburg dynasty towers, the old town hall and the “Stone Bridge” from the 12th century as well as the Herzogshof catch the eye.
The streets of the old town are characterized by historical buildings from many eras. Rich merchant families built opulent houses and villas here. In between there are churches, the bishop’s seat and the imposing St. Peter’s Cathedral, where the famous Regensburg cathedral sparrows regularly appear. Emmeram Castle, the headquarters of Thurn & Taxis, is located a little outside the city center.

Regensburg for nature lovers and active people

Regensburg is cozy and at the same time exciting, as more than 20 museums, exhibitions and memorials show. In the summer months, many interesting events take place in the beautiful parks, in the city center and along the Danube, attracting visitors from all over Germany.
Nature lovers can hike or cycle in the Regensburg avenue belt or the wooded and hilly surrounding area. A special view of Regensburg is offered during a boat trip on the Danube, which also takes you past the two islands of Obere and Untere Wörth in the city area.

Sanssouci Palace

A visit to nearby Potsdam should not be missing on a trip to Berlin. Hardly any other city can boast such a unique architectural ensemble as the Brandenburg capital. UNESCO honored this unique combination of castles and parks in the form that it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The focus of this ensemble is of course the Sanssouci Palace.

It started with old Fritz

Friedrich II laid the foundation stone for the magnificent gardens and the Sanssouci Palace in 1745 when he commissioned the construction of a small rococo summer palace. But it was not until the next century, in 1841, under Friedrich IV, a great-nephew of old Fritz, that the expansion into the palace and the gardens that can be admired today began. Friedrich Wilhelm IV had side wings built on the left and right of the original summer palace of his ancestor. The striking vineyard terraces, which nestle against the slope directly below the castle, were laid out in the time of Frederick II.

The architecture of Sanssouci

The original summer palace with a length of 91 m was built by the architect Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff based on the sketches of Friedrich II. The side wings that were added in the following century, each 31 m long, were again made by Ludwig Persius based on the king’s sketches.
The idea of ​​a summer palace was also retained under Friedrich IV and so all rooms are on one level so that you can access the garden without having to climb stairs. The front as well as the garden are oriented to the south and have magnificent decorations, whereas the north side is kept rather simple.

The German Versailles

Under Friedrich IV, the original place of residence of the old Fritz, who once wanted to be buried on the top terrace, was expanded and rebuilt for representative purposes. Accordingly, the rooms of the palace show themselves in a splendid interior that reminds quite a few visitors of the Palace of Versailles of the French Sun King, Louis XIV. In addition to the castle, it is also the impressive gardens that fascinate every visitor and make you dream of times gone by.

Oberammergau Passion Play Germany