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The Formation of the Greek Religion Part I

The Formation of the Greek Religion Part I

The religion of the “proto-Greek” people contributed to the primitivism of the Greek religion, which in the course of the second millennium BC. C. descended from the north into the Hellenic peninsula and that of the pre-Hellenic or “Helladic” or “Pelasgic” or “Carie” or whatever you want to call peoples, who had settled in the country before those invasions. Culturally, and most likely also politically, these Helladic people depended on Crete: perhaps they were also ethnically related to the Cretans, as well as to the residents of the other Aegean islands. Even their religion will have been in some respects akin to or dependent on the Cretan one of the Minoan era; but it cannot be excluded that in other respects it was original and independent. The penetration of the Protogrecì occurred in successive waves over the course of several centuries: the religion that the first comers brought with them was not identical to that of the last invaders. Those, having imposed their lordship, and with it their language, to the Helladic peoples, partly adopted their civilization for various respects superior to their own. Thus was formed the Mycenaean civilization. Like this, the Mycenaean religion is therefore a composite, syncretistic product, which explains its differences – alongside the many similarities – with respect to the Cretan Minoan religion. (This, like all Minoan civilization, is pre-Greek, and is of interest to Greek religious history only for the influences it exercised on the Mycenaean religion, and for those that the Greek religion then exercised on it at the time of Hellenization). With the’ last invasion of Protogenic peoples towards the end of the second millennium the Mycenaean civilization was dissolved. Even religion, uprooted from the continent, was transplanted by the vanquished fugitives on the islands and coasts of Asia Minor, where over time it became impoverished, while on the other hand it appropriated new elements of eastern Asian origin. But even in the continent it was not completely annulled, because some of its elements survived in latent form and then passed into the historical Greek religion.

It is very difficult to distinguish within the Mycenaean religion what was the contribution of the Protogenic peoples of distant northern origin from what was the patrimony of the primitive Helladic peoples, in which patrimony one should further distinguish what was originally Helladic from what was import or derivation Cretan. The problem does not even arise for those elementary religious forms which are common to all peoples in a phase of not very advanced civilization, and in Greece they can therefore be attributed to an earlier time not only to Homer (where they almost do not appear), but also to formation of the Mycenaean religion: prenational elements and virtually present aboriginein each of the ethnic components of historical Greek religion, both in the religion of the Protogenic immigrants and in that of the Elladics. In Arcadia, shaking an oak frond within a spring, a vapor appeared, which then condensed in the form of a small cloud, which attracted the soaking clouds (Paus., VIII 38, 4). A Crannon, in Thessaly, under drought epoch dragged a noisy metallic wagon with above a vessel to obtain a semblance of the sound of thunder, and then the same thunder, and with it the rain (Antig., Hist. Mir., 15). These are magical rites, intended to produce like with like (sympathetic magic), acting through a mysterious force inherent in the things employed and in the operations and gestures performed and – in other cases – in the words spoken, and therefore essentially independent of the intervention of a divinity (prey), even if eventually aggregated and incorporated into the cult of some god (for example the aforementioned arcade rite in the cult of Zeus Liceo). There are no sure traces of totemism in Greece, despite the attempts made to prove its existence (especially S. Reinach, in several essays: Cultes, Mythes et Religions, vols. 5, Paris 1908-1923). The conception of the soul as ψυχή is frankly animistic, that is, as a breath, breath, spirit: the spirit that comes out of the body when man dies, that goes out, but then re-enters him, if he had simply fainted like Andromache (Il., XXII, 467), or stunned as Sarpedon (Il., V, 696): this congenital lightness of the soul as spirit, breath, breath is reflected in the conception of the soul as a bird (Weicker, Der Seelenvogel in der antiken Literatur und Kunst, Leipzig 1902) or as a butterfly or bee or moth (O. Waser, Ûber die äussere Erscheinung der Seele in den Vorstellungen der Völker, zumal der alten Griechen, in Archiv f. Reliġ ionswiss., XVI, 1913, 336 ff.), As well as in the εἴδωλα reproducing the figure of the deceased, but with wings. The 30 stones that still at the time of Pausanias (VII, 22, 3) were venerated at Fare in Achaia, each with the name of a god, can be traced back to fetishism. Representatives of demonism are the numerous groups of Charites, Sirens, Harpies, Erinyes, Satyrs, Sileni, Centaurs, Loaves, etc., some of which, especially those more or less theriomorphic, recall the numerous hybrid figures that abound on the seals and others Mycenaean and Minoan art objects. These elementary religious forms, although ethnically indeterminable, nevertheless have great importance for the history of Greek religion, also in relation to the conspicuous flowering of analogous forms (especially magic) which took place in the last periods of Greek religious history.

The Formation of the Greek Religion 1

Germany Archaeology

Germany Archaeology

In Germany the systematic search of the various archaeological remains of the national territory has been organized for a long time. Currently important new results have been obtained by the Archaeological Prospecting Center created in 1959 at the Landesmuseum in Bonn; this center carried out extensive aerial photographic surveys in the Rhineland, uncovering a large number of archaeological remains from various periods: entrenched villages from the Neolithic, mounds from the Hallstatt civilization, urn fields, enclosures from the La Tène era, locally called Gräber-Gärten (Wederath, Kreis, BernKastel, etc.), Roman villas and farms and in particular castra del limes of Germany Superior et Inferior.

The buildings of the Augustan age of Xanten (Castra Vetera) have not yet been identified also due to the phenomenon of erosion and the change of course of the Rhine. The first field (Vetera I) with internal stone constructions was probably built under Claudius, but few traces are preserved. On the other hand, the Neronian buildings are well known and a detailed plan has been made. The archaeological remains of Vetera II are scarce and poorly known, built by Vespasian after the events of 69 AD (Civil revolt) on the other bank of the west arm of the Rhine.) which attest, in the Augustan-Tiberian age, the existence of a military installation. Destroyed as a result of the riots of 69 AD, it was rebuilt and experienced various phases not documented with precision. Probably abandoned at the beginning of the 2nd century, the name does not appear in Antonino’s Itinerary. Following recent excavations it seems that also in Gelduba (Krefeld-Gellep) there was a small settlement of the Ubii, of which some traces have been found on the ground. In 69 a marching camp was built there for the troops from Superior Germany in the fight against Civil. Of this field only a few traces remain (parallel ditches, weapons, ceramics); around 71-75 AD was built near a castellum which underwent at least ten successive phases of construction up to the 4th century. The excavations made it possible to study the principia, the left door principalis and numerous moats. The Novaesium field (Neuss) is archaeologically well known. Currently it has been possible to establish a succession of twelve construction periods under Augustus and Tiberius. The best known phase of the encampment, the only one for which a detailed plan of the internal installations exists, is that of the Claudian age, to which the stone architecture of the buildings dates back. The existence of the canabae seems to be attested by the Tiberian age and a civil agglomeration developed there throughout the imperial period.

In Cologne, new clues have made it possible to establish the limits of the legionary camp of the Tiberian age, delimited in particular by a series of ovens for potters, who are currently considered dependent on the legionary camp. A part of the defensive system and the decumana gate were found of the military installations. The topography of the residential area of ​​Colonia Claudia-Ara Agrippinensis is also known: the ancient praetorium del campo was transformed into a palace with arcades intended for the governor of the province. Recently a mithraeum has been found and the remains of a theater and the site of the amphitheater located outside the walls have been brought to light; furthermore, the discovery of a series of towers and some sections of the walls made it possible to better understand the function of the outer wall that protected the city for the whole empire. As for the cities and the neighborhoods recently discovered, very little known is the ancient agglomeration of Neumagen (Noviomagus); only a few coins and ceramics (in addition to the famous reliefs) attest to its activity from the 1st to the 3rd century. An important craft and trade center has been located in Pachten (Contiomagus?). Rare are the traces relating to the 1st century AD. C., while much more numerous are those pertinent to the 2nd and especially to the 3rd and 4th centuries. A neighborhood of potters has been traced to the western edge of the vicus ; moreover, a sanctuary surrounded by a wall framed a temple with a square cell and portico and a monoptero temple dedicated to Pritona; the complex was to be flanked by a theater. A few years ago an important agglomeration built with an orthogonal plan was excavated in Schwarzennacker, on the Trier-Strasbourg road; the vicus it had to have an exclusively agricultural character. Systematic excavations of the site have revealed a residential neighborhood. The excavation of the Pesch sanctuary has recently been resumed; Remodeled several times, the temples often show traces overlapping and difficult to interpret: however, two main periods of occupation have been possible (in the 1st century and from the 2nd to the 4th century AD). The constructions of the second stage are of a very particular shape: the large central enclosure must have constituted a covered place; neither the destination nor the date of the singular temple B or basilica is clear, a square-plan building with a rectangular apse, divided into three naves by two rows of columns: the originality of the building suggests a mystery cult. The most important cult of the sanctuary must have been that of the Matronae Vacallinehae of which about three hundred inscriptions have been discovered. A new temple dedicated to the Matronae has been found in the same region in Zingsheim. A new cult complex was recently unearthed in Hunsrück, in Heckenmünster-Wallenborn, consisting of three temples, two of which are Celtic-type and the third has an orthogonal plan: there are annexes of the spa buildings. Built at the end of the 1st century AD. C., the sanctuary was abandoned at the end of the 3rd century.

After 1960, laboratory researches relating to ceramics multiplied, making it possible to better clarify the techniques of manufacture and to distinguish their origins. The importation of the “Italic sealed earth” and the importance it has for the dating of the places of discovery has been demonstrated once more by the recent discovery, in Haltern, of a potter’s workshop with fragments of molds for processing. of chalices imitating the Arezzo vases. The relationship between the Trier, Sinzig and Rheinzabern workshops and the master craftsmen operating in Mittelbronn and in the Moselle area etc. was also studied, and the influence of these in the production of the branches located further east was underlined. In this context, the recent discovery in Novaesium of Sigillata from central Gaul from the 2nd and 3rd centuries should be mentioned.

Germany Archaeology

Brazil Figurative Arts Part 2

Brazil Figurative Arts Part 2

Among the disciples of Grandjean de Montigny are José Maria Jacintho Rebello (1821-1872), architect and landscape painter, and Francisco Joaquim Bittencourt da Silva, sculptor and architect; among those of Auguste Taunay, there are the sculptors José Joaquim Allão, José Jorge Duarte, Xisto Antonio Pires, Candido Matheus Faria and others; among those of Marco Ferrez, the sculptor Francisco Manuel Chaves Pinheiro (1882-1884). In painting, many foreigners flourished in Rio de Janeiro at this time, some of whom were educated in art by the members of the French commission. We name the Italians Eduardo De Martino, who illustrated the landscape and military history of Brazil with vigor and vivacity, Luigi Santoro and Alessandro Biagini. Among the Brazilian painters he distinguished himself, in addition to numerous disciples of Debret: Manuel de Araujo Porto-Alegre, then baron of Santo Angelo (1806-1879), distinguished poet and writer, who also carried out his activity in teaching and diplomacy, whose paintings attest to a good command of technical means, imagination and color. We remember:D. Pedro I, Visconde de Araguaya, Luiza Rosa benfeitora from Santa Casa, a Ceia (Dome of the Santa Casa), Passagem do Vermelho Tues., coroação de D. Pedro II, not finished. Among the continuers of French teaching, Porto-Alegre is the culminating figure.

While in the capital there was such an intense movement, in the provinces there were nuclei that were not without importance. The Province of St. Paul produces excellent painter José de Almeida Iunior Fleming, author of O Lenhador, Os caipiras, Picador de smoke, Amola ç AO interrompida; that of Bahia, Felix Pereira, Manuel Ignacio da Costa, Feliciano de Aguiar, Bento José Rufino, Joaquim Tourinho, Olympio Freire da Motta and Firmino Monteiro; those of Pernambuco, Pará, Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Sul, other valiant artists, especially painters. We also remember, in Pará, the Italians Domenico de Angelis, painter and sculptor, Pignatelli, Righini, Capranesi, the portrait painters Centofante and Rocattani, and the architect Calandrini.

But the highest artistic expressions are found, under the empire, in “heroic” or “historical” painting determined by the long war with Paraguay: when Brazil affirmed its South American supremacy, Brazilian art also reached its maximum splendor for especially the work of Pedro Americo and Victor Meirelles, to whom Brazil owes a vast work in battle pictures and other genres of painting.

Victor Meirelles de Lima (Santa Catharina, 1832-1903), che studiò anche to Rome and Parigi, compose, fra moltissime altre pitture: S. John the Baptist in carcere (1859), First Mass, Moema, First outcasts, Riachuelo Battle, Battle of Guararapes, Pass Humaytá, Sticking ç to, flagella ç will of Christ, Pledge Princeza Regent Lady Dona Isabel Countess d’Eu in 1872, Sagra ç will of the Church of Candelaria in 1899. Lasciò numerosi discepoli.

Next to him Pedro Americo de Figueiredo and Mello (Parahiba do Norte, 1843-1905), a follower of the classical ideal, he painted historical paintings, including Avahi, Campo – Grande and Batalha de S. Martino, requested by the Italian government. They are also its Petrus to vincula, Colombo, Moysés no Nile, two portraits: David and Pedro II, Socrates Alcibiades afastando dos bra ç os do vicio, S. Marcos, A visão de S. Paulo, Cabesa de S. Jeronymo, Paz and Concordia and many other paintings, made in Brazil, in Paris, in Italy. Success smiled on him, and he received many honors especially from D. Pedro II.

After 1889, the republic was proclaimed, art did not cease to progress. In all the capitals of the confederation, and mainly in Rio de Janeiro, a vivifying breath revives painting and sculpture and also gives architecture a new luxuriance such as had not yet been seen in Brazil, with the monumental reconstruction of many cities. The renewed fervor for ancient Brazilian colonial art is no stranger to this luxuriance.

Manáos, in the heart of the Amazon, builds important buildings. Belém del Pará follows with the same renewing spirit. In this city we remember the architect José de Castro Figueiredo, the sculptors Wolfang Miranda, Nicephoro Moreira, Guilherme Pearce, Henrique Dumont, Giulietta Franca, and the painters Antonio dos Santos Gaspar, also architect and sculptor, Chaves Pinheiro and Bittencourt da Silva. S. Paolo boasts an excellent academy.

In the recent reconstruction of the federal capital, most of the engineers and architects have had: Frontin, Heitor de Mello, Souza Aguiar, Del Vecchio, Alfredo Lisboa, Francisco Bicalho, Vieira Souto, Silva Lara, Ernesto da Cunha de Araujo Vianna, Antonio de Paula Freitas, Carlos Sampaio, Sampaio Corrêa and many others. We remember the sculptors Candido Caetano de Almeid, in Reis, Hortensio Cordoville José Octavio Corrêa Lima and Rodolfo Bernardelli, born in Mexico, but Brazilian by election, for many years director of the academy, author of numerous works, among which we note O Christo ea adultera, the Descobrimento do Brasil group ; the equestrian statues of Osorio and Duque de Caxias. Finally, we also mention the painters Decio Villares, Aurelio de Figueiredo, Henrique Bernardelli, brother of Rodolfo, Parreiras, Baptista da Costa, Belmiro de Almeida, Rodolfo Amodeo, Pedro Weingärtner, Eugenio Latour, Helio Silinger, and others.

Brazil Figurative Arts 2

Brazil Figurative Arts

Brazil Figurative Arts

The history of art in Brazil can be divided into two distinctly distinct periods, a colonial and an autonomous period.

In Portugal, architecture flourished late and did not always have a chronological development corresponding to that of the rest of Europe. The Romanesque style spread there when it was abandoned in other countries, and did not last long; longer the Gothic, which left numerous vestiges there. The Manueline is the Gothic style transformed as a plastic symbol to the Portuguese aspiration towards the sea and conquest. Cultivated during the reigns of John II and Manuel I, it declined in the face of the classicism that resurfaced throughout the old continent. Thus the Greek-Roman neoclassical succeeded the Portuguese Gothic.

Religious architecture was imported to Brazil by the Jesuits, who adopted Greco-Roman classicism, eliminating what it smacked of pagan, and seeking maximum exterior simplicity in contrast with the sumptuousness of the interiors: they raised facades that were often cold, bare, inelegant, with a pediment curved or triangular, with one or two towers topped by a tetrahedron. It is the so-called Jesuit style; but in truth the Jesuits did not introduce their own artistic style, which they did not have, but they transported Portuguese and Italian Baroque, with its strengths and defects, to Brazil. The plethora of ornaments which, inside, sometimes came to hide the architectural structure, is found, in fact, also in non-Jesuit churches.

Among the main monuments we must remember the tower of Olinda, erected in 1535 by the first donor of Pernambuco, Duarte Coelho, and whose ruins still existed in the middle of the century. XVIII. Besides it, Olinda, one of the richest cities in Brazil, had various monasteries, the church of the Savior, fortresses, etc.

In the century XVI we find the names of the architect Antonio Pires, Jesuit, of the sculptor Diogo Jacome, of the architect Manuel Fernandes, in Pernambuco (1585), and of the Capuchin Francisco dos Santos, who directed the construction of the monasteries of St. Francis, in Olinda and Parahiba. The most important constructions of this century are the Jesuit colleges of S. Paolo (1554), Rio de Janeiro (1570), of S. Salvador (1572) and Olinda (1576), for which marble blocks were transported to Brazil. in Europe.

Conspicuous was the building activity in Brazil during the century. XVIII and among the most notable buildings that arose at that time in Rio de Janeiro, the church of the Military Cross (1735), the Arches aqueduct (1751), the Opera House (1767), which burned down and replaced from the Manuel Luiz theater (1769); in Belém del Pará, the cathedral (1748), the most majestic in Brazil, the government palace (1761), designed by Lande, the fortress of Macapá (1764), designed by the military engineer HA Galussi, and a house of Mercy (1787); in Minas Geraes the church of Caeté (1757); in Bahia, the church of Bomfim.

Not a few sculptors flourish in Pernambuco and Bahia, of which the main one is Chagas, called Cabra, from Bahia, author of images of a deeply human painful expression, which are found in the church of the Carmelite tertiaries. Among them, the group of Pains, S. John and the Magdalene, the Virgin, the Child Jesus, and the Madonna del Carmelo.

Many artists of Bahia were of Mineira origin, since in the province of Minas Geraes the flourishing of the arts followed the prosperity deriving from the exploitation of gold and other mines. The greatest representative of this particularly brilliant period of Brazilian art was Antonio Francisco Lisboa (1730-1814), called the Aleijadinho following physical deformity. Abandoning himself first to loves and revelries, then becoming a solitary misanthrope, he gave rise to poetic legends around his name; disseminated his works in the province of Minas, especially in Ouro Preto, S. João d’El-Rey, Marianna, Congonhas, Santa Luzia and Sabará. He is the author of the twelve great Prophetsin the church of NS de Mattosinhos in Congonhas do Campo. He was responsible for the churches of S. Francesco d’Assisi in Our0 Preto and S. João d’El-Rey.

Another notable artist was the half-caste Mestre Valentim, that is Valentim de Fonseca and Silva (1750-1813), the most famous of the colonial sculptors and architects, to whom many works in Rio de Janeiro are owed. He left a school, to which José Carlos Pinto, Simeão José de Nazareth, Francisco de Paula Borges, etc. belonged. Other contemporaries are: José da Conceição, Simão da Cunha, Seraphim dos Anjos, Antonio de Padua, Martinho de Brito, sculptor and painter, and Xavier das Conchas.

In the early years of the century. XIX, political transformations affect the destinies of art. Various and important institutes are founded in the capital, such as the naval, medical, military and fine arts academies, the schools of commerce, agriculture and botany, the library and the museum. The Viceroy Count of Arcos builds a large palace, which later renovations have changed character. Of the same time are the Quinta de S. Christovam (later an imperial palace, and today a national museum) and the S. Giovanni theater, today S. Pedro de Alcantara.

We can consider as the father of painting, in Bahia, Eusebio de Mattos Guerra (1620 or 1624-1692), brother of the poet Gregorio de Mattos, and author of canvases praised by biographers, but dispersed or largely lost. Towards the middle of the following century, Josè Joaquim da Rocha, mineiro of origin, admirable for his activity, and for his fervent and disinterested teaching, flourished, also in Bahia, and the Jesuit Alexandre de Gusmão, author, among other things, of a Nativity. The main works of JJ da Rocha are preserved in numerous churches. His best disciples were Lopes Marques, Antonio Dias, Antonio Pinto, Ramos Nunes da Motta, Souza Coutinho, José Theophilo de Jesus, Jose Verissimo, Lourenço Machado and Franco Vellasco (1778-1833), the most spontaneous of the school and very fruitful portrait painter. He too left behind disciples of merit: Bento José Campinam (1791-1874), José Rodrigues Nunes (1800-1881) and others. Then the decline of Bahian painting begins, and the center of the arts becomes Rio de Janeiro which had already had an artistic tradition and where the oldest painter was a Flemish friar Ricardo do Pilar (end of the 17th century), who in the monastery of S Bento painted numerous pictures, and was compared, for life, to Fra Giovanni da Fiesole.

From this old Fluminense school we mention: José de Oliveira (1690-1763), João de Souza, João Florencio Muggio, the half-caste Cunha (1737-1809), vigorous artist, author, among other things, of the portrait of the Count of Bobadella, Leandro Joaquim (1738-1798), painter and architect, Raimundo da Costa e Silva, painter and sculptor, and Francisco Solano Benjamin, painter. At the beginning of the century. XIX we note in Rio de Janeiro the arrival of a peregrine artist, Manuel Dias de Oliveira Brasiliense (died in 1831), known as the Roman, having studied in Rome; of his vast work Remember: A Sant’Anna, a Conception (the National Gallery), a head S. Paulon ivory, several portraits and landscapes. Another excellent portraitist was José Leandro de Carvalho (1750-1831). In the beginning of the century. The engravers Romão Eloy de Almeida, João José de Souza and José Fernandez Portugal also flourished in the 19th century, the latter also a cartographer.

The starting point of the autonomous period of Brazilian art can be assigned to the year 1816, when Dom John VI called to Rio de Janeiro a commission of French artists, organized by J. Le Breton, and composed of the Taunay brothers (Nicolas and Auguste), by Debret, Grandjean de Montigny, Dillon, Bonrepos, Levavasseur, Meunié, Ovide, Enout, Level, Pilite, Fabre, Roy (father and son), Ferrez (Zefirino and Marco). Only after many difficulties were they able to work usefully and make numerous disciples. The French influence had beneficial effects, and brought Brazil into contact with the modern art movement.

Brazil Figurative Arts

Franco-German War of 1870

Franco-German War of 1870

Franco-German War of 1870/71, war between France and the North German Confederation under the leadership of Prussia. Last of the so-called wars of unification.

The cause of the war was v. a. In the will of O. von Bismarck , after the victories of Prussia in 1866/67, to secure its hegemony in continental Europe permanently, domestic political difficulties in France came in handy.

The external reason was the question of the “Hohenzollern candidacy for the throne” in Spain (Emser Depesche). On July 19, 1870, France declared war. While a Franco-Austrian alliance did not come about in time, the southern German states sided with Prussia. From the Palatinate, three German armies under Crown Prince Friedrich, Prince Friedrich Karl and K. F. von Steinmetz (with H. Graf von Moltke as Chief of Staff), mobilized in the shortest possible time, advanced and took the initiative.

They won at Weißenburg (4.8.), Wörth and Spichern (6.8.). The French Rhine Army under F. A. Bazaine was thrown into the fortress of Metz and enclosed in the battles at Colombey-Nouilly, Vionville-Mars-la-Tour and Gravelotte-Saint-Privat (August 14th to 18th). In an attempt to relieve Bazaine, the French Marshal M. Mac-Mahon was pushed to Sedan and surrounded there; his entire army surrendered on September 2, Napoleon III. got into captivity with her.

After the French Republic was proclaimed (September 4), the German armies advanced on Paris and closed it on September 15. on. Metz capitulated on October 27th. The armies set up by L. Gambetta in the south and north for the liberation of Paris were defeated at Orléans, Le Mans, Amiens and Saint-Quentin in December 1870 and January 1871.

Fearing that the neutrals would interfere, O. von Bismarck tried to hasten the fall of Paris and pushed through the bombardment of the fortress against the military leadership. An armistice was signed on January 28, 1871. Only in eastern France was there still fighting; on 1.2. the French Eastern Army was forced by the newly formed German Southern Army under E. Freiherr von Manteuffel to cede to Switzerland at Pontarlier, where they were interned.

Already on January 18th King Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in Versailles (foundation of the German Empire). On February 26 the preliminary peace of Versailles was concluded; on May 10th followed the Peace of Frankfurt. The obligation contained therein to evacuate the occupied French territories was fulfilled by Germany on September 16, 1873.

Air France

Air France [.epsilon. ː r Frà ː s], short for Compagnie Nationale Air France [k ɔ pa ɲ i nasj ɔ nal -], abbreviation AF [ ɑ eF], leading French airline, founded in 1933, Headquarters: Paris. 1990 Participation in Air Inter (merged with it since 1997) and takeover of the private airline UTA (Union des Transports Aériens). In 2000 she founded the airline alliance Skyteam with Delta Airlines Inc., Aeromexico and Korean Air. In 2003, AF carried 42.9 million passengers to 192 international destinations with a fleet of 360 aircraft. In 2004 there was a merger with the Dutch airline KLM to form Allianz Air France-KLM with the Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Amsterdam-Schiphol hubs. Under the umbrella of the holding company, Air France and KLM continued to exist as independent companies, which together flew to 328 destinations in 118 countries in 2017 (passenger volume: 98.7 million). Turnover (2017): € 25.78 billion, employees (2016): 84,600.

French Revolution

French Revolution, epoch of French history that lasted from 1789 to 1799 and during which the old rule (ancien régime) was forcibly removed.

The French Revolution was caused by abuses such as the arbitrary rule of kings, steadily increasing national debt with a simultaneous increase in the tax burden and famine. It was rooted in the mind Enlightenment.

After the Estates General (clergy, nobility, third estate) had been convened in May 1789 because of the government’s financial difficulties, the third estate declared itself to be the constituent national assembly. With the storming of the Bastille (the old state prison in Paris) on July 14th, the open uprising began (July 14th became a national holiday).

The National Assembly decided on profound changes: it proclaimed human rights, created the centralized administrative system with the départements and abolished the privileges of the nobility and clergy. Leading people were GJ Danton and Jean Paul Marat (1743–93). The National Convention, the new parliament (since 1792), decided to abolish kingship; Louis XVI was executed in 1793.

The Welfare Committee (the executive organ of the National Convention) headed by M. de Robespierre and the National Convention exercised a reign of terror.

After the fall of Robespierre and his execution (1794), a board of five convent members took over the government in 1795. The internal failures (bankruptcy of the state in 1797) and the foreign policy defeats in the Revolutionary Wars led to Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup in 1799 and the dissolution of the Directory.

The general slogan of the French Revolution (“Freedom, Equality, Fraternity”) remained a demand made again and again by the champions for the Human rights.

Franco-German War of 1870


Hungarian Music

Hungarian Music

Hungarian music, name for Hungarian folk music, which can be divided into two layers in the unanimous folk song.

An older one with semitone pentatonic and parlando rubato performance, a younger one with a seven-step scale and rhythmically strict performance. Folk musical instruments include in addition to various forms of the violin, a cello-like instrument (gardon), dulcimer (cimbalom), hurdy-gurdy (tekerő), magnetic flute (furulya) and a popular oboe (tárogató).

Hungarian art music begins with Gregorian chants as well as vernacular epics and the work of foreign musicians at the Hungarian royal court (around 1000). Central and western European immigrants (since the 12th century) brought their music with them; traveling musicians and students mediated the exchange with the rest of Europe; Hungarian dances (Ungaresca) have been an integral part of the pan-European repertoire since the end of the 15th century.

During the Turkish rule (from 1526) and the tripartite division of the country (from 1541), historical chants (rhyming chronicles, political songs) lived on, especially in the Austrian part; Protestant and Hussite chant elements complemented the popular sacred song. Art music was used by the aristocratic courts, churches, monasteries and, in some cases, schools.

Between 1690 and 1711 the »Kurutzenlieder« were created, a combination of historical song and folk song with Slovak, Romanian and Polish features (e.g. the »Rákóczi-way«). In the middle of the 18th century the Verbunkos appeared. János Bihari (* 1764, † 1827), János Lavotta (* 1764, † 1820) and A. Csermák. Verbunkos and its branches in Csárdás and urban song as well as liberty and student songs form a folk style that was considered typical of Hungarian music from 1790 to the 20th century.

Liszt, Mihály Mosonyi (* 1815, † 1870) and F. Erkel created national Hungarian music with a romantic character. At Liszt close ödön mihalovich (* 1842, † 1929) and J. Hubay directly. The works of E. von Dohnányi and Leó Weiner (* 1885, † 1960) are in the German romantic tradition; Erwin Lendvai (* 1882, † 1949) is considered an important choral composer. Modernism includes Sándor Jemnitz (* 1890, † 1963), László Lajtha (* 1892, † 1963) and F. Farkas.

The most important Hungarian composers, B. Bartók and Z. Kodály, were also well-known folk music researchers and used original peasant music in their compositions. Bartók fuses national, folk music material with highly developed compositional methods. Kodály’s conception as a composer and teacher is based on folk music and has created the basis of a new Hungarian musical culture through a broad choral movement and a system of music schools, especially since 1945; it has received international attention as a model since the late 1950s.

As a teacher, Kodály trained several generations of composers, including P. Kadosa, Ferenc Szabó (* 1902, † 1969), Rudolf Maros (* 1917, † 1982) and P. Járdányi; worked abroad M. Seiber, A. Doráti and S. Veress. The contemporary music represented inter alia. G. Kurtág, G. Ligeti, Emil Petrovics (* 1930, † 2011), Sándor Szokolay (* 1931, † 2013), István Láng (* 1933), Z. Durkó, Attila Bozay (* 1939, † 1999), P. Eötvös, R. Wittinger and Z. Kocsis. In order to participate in the international development of music, some composers, musicologists and musicians – including Zoltán Jeney (* 1943, † 2019), László Sáry (* 1940) and László Vidovsky (* 1944) founded the »Studio for New Music (* 1944) in  1970 «(Uj Zenei Stúdió), with which they broke with tradition, drawing on the music of J. Cage. Encouraged by this group, but also withdrawn from it, other composer associations such as the »Group of Young Composers« (Zeneszerzók Csoportja) and the »Group 180« (180-as Csoport) were founded in the 1980s.


Szeged [ sεgεd], German Szegedin [ sεgεdi ː n], capital of the district Csongrád, Southeast Hungary, on both sides of the Tisza near the mouth of the Maros, near the border with Romania and Serbia (Wojwodina), (2018) 161 100 residents.

Catholic bishopric; University (founded in Kapozsvár / Cluj-Napoca in 1872, re-establishment of the Hungarian University in Szeged, which closed there in 1919/20, in 1921), other universities, microbiological research institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, biotechnological center, national theater, conservatory, Ferenc Móra museum, botanical Garden. The food industry is important, especially salami and pepper production (Szeged is the center of the most important Hungarian paprika growing area), as well as mechanical engineering, furniture, textile and leather industries, tobacco processing, tire factory; in Algyő oil and gas production; Transport hub with inland port and airfield.

Demetriusturm (12th to 13th centuries, tower of the former Demetrius Church); Remains of a castle (13th century); Marienkirche (end of the 15th century) with baroque furnishings; neo-Romanesque cathedral with two 93 m high towers, built at the beginning of the 20th century to commemorate the flood disaster of 1879; neo-baroque town hall (1883); Town houses mainly from the 17th century.

On the already around 2000 BC Béla IV. Had a castle built in the 13th century. The important medieval salt transhipment point became a royal free town in 1498 and was under Turkish rule from 1543–1686. In 1879 a flood destroyed almost the entire city. In 1919, Szeged was the starting point for the counter-revolutionary movement to overthrow the Hungarian Soviet Republic.


Miskolc [ Wed ʃ Kolts], capital of the county of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Northern Hungary, on the eastern edge of the Bükk, (2018) 155 700 residents.

Industrial center; University (founded in 1949 as a TU for heavy industry), metallurgical open-air museum, etc. Museums; Iron and steel industry in the Diósgyőr district (decline during the 1990s), mechanical engineering, paper and food industries. The Tapolca district with its underground caves and lakes is a health resort (thermal springs).

The Gothic church on Avasberg (middle of the 13th century) was rebuilt several times; rebuilt after a fire in 1560–69. The castle ruins in the Diósgyőr district date from the 13th century; it houses a museum and is the scene of the annual castle festival.

Miskolc goes back to a Scythian settlement; Proven as a wine market in 1365, free royal town in 1405; came to royal Hungary after 1526 (Battle of Mohács), then was briefly Transylvanian. Located in the border area, Miskolc suffered from Ottoman raids and double taxation. Miskolc was a center of early industrialization (hammer and stamp mills, oldest blast furnace at the beginning of the 19th century).

Hungarian Music

Lesotho Landmarks

Lesotho Landmarks

Ha-Khotso rock art

The Bushmen in southern Africa were not only successful hunters – they also felt the need to capture their everyday lives for eternity and to scratch paintings in rocks. The drawings not far from the village of Ha Khotso north of Roma in the Kingdom of Lesotho are among the oldest on our globe. The exact age of this San legacy has not yet been determined – but some experts assume that the drawings are several thousand years old. These rock carvings are a popular travel destination during Lesotho tours and can be reached on a day trip from the capital Maseru.

The San people – nomads in Africa

The people in Lesotho call this place Ha Boroana – which translates as “The little San”. In a rock face that slopes sharply, you will find numerous well-preserved and sometimes even artistic drawings from everyday hunting. They were a tribe of nomads who skillfully adapted to changes in nature and moved with the stream of prey. The San can still be found in the south of the Black Continent – especially in South Africa, Lesotho, Botswana and Namibia.

The drawings of a natural religion?

Many of the drawings that can be admired in Ha Khotso are astonishingly large – others are tiny. But they always show the San’s prey. These were especially antelopes and wildebeest. Scientists are still puzzling about what moved these ethnic primitive people to draw animals in many places. Some assume that they must have been animal gods – an indication that a kind of natural religion was already practiced by humans back then.

A footpath leads to the rock overhang

If you want to visit this remarkable rock individually, you should orientate yourself in the village of Nazareth according to the signs there. A footpath leads to a gorge and finally to the pictures on the rock. Not far from this site is the fortress of Thaba Bosiu, where only ruins and tombs remain of the former residence of the king.

Sehlabathebe National Park

untouched nature in the Maloti Mountains

Sehlabathebe National Park is a secluded park in Lesotho. It is located in the southeast corner of the small state on the border with South Africa in the Drakensberg. Together with the neighboring Drakensberg National Park, it forms a cross-border nature reserve. The highest peaks of the Drakensberg with an average of 2,400 meters are located in the Sehlabathebe National Park, where the Maloti Mountains are called.

Breathtaking natural landscapes

Sehlabathebe is Lesotho’s oldest national park, founded in 1969 by the country’s first prime minister and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Due to its impressive landscape, the sparsely populated park is a popular destination for study travelers and photographers. It enchants with endless grass steppes overgrown with colorful wild flowers and bizarre sandstone formations with caves, deep gorges and spectacular rock overhangs. In more than 60 places there are impressive ancient rock paintings by the South African peoples of the San.

The region is characterized by numerous rivers, crystal clear mountain lakes, rushing waterfalls and rock pools. The most important attraction in the park is the Tsoelikane waterfall, whose rock pool invites you to take a refreshing dip when the temperature is right. The wetlands are home to rich flora and fauna. In addition to rare bearded vultures and numerous species of birds, roebuck, gazelle-like oribis, wild cats, jackals, baboons and mongooses can be seen there. Far away from civilization, flocks of sheep graze on the vast grasslands. The shepherds are wrapped in traditional colorful woolen blankets and wear a pointed straw hat.

Excursions and activities

The park, which is difficult to access, is best explored by tourists on foot, on horseback or in an off-road vehicle. In the unique secluded landscape, hikes, riding excursions and climbing tours lasting several days are offered by various agencies accompanied by local guides. Some hut camps and well-equipped lodges are available for overnight stays. There is also the possibility of pitching a tent everywhere. The climate in Lesotho is moderately warm due to the altitude. In the winter months from June to August there is partial frost in the high regions.

Libya study trips and round trips

Libya is the fourth largest country on the African continent – however, about 90% of the area is covered by deserts, so that life primarily takes place within the 2,000 km long coastal strip on the Mediterranean Sea and in the oases spread all over the country. Otherwise, the landscape forms a plain that begins at the Tunisian border and extends to the Jabal Akhdar region, the more hilly Libyan inland, dune landscapes and karst mountains. A geographical peculiarity of Libya is that it is one of the few countries on earth that does not have a permanent river. In view of this, you can expect either a warm Mediterranean climate, which is ideal for a beach holiday – or there is an extreme desert climate, in which the values ​​in summer are still around 26 ° C at night and in which there can be night frost in winter. Nevertheless, a tour through the Sahara is definitely recommended… preferably in the first few months of the year. Libya is also culturally interesting because the country looks back on a long history. The rock paintings in Acacus are probably the oldest evidence of civilization. Thousands of engravings adorn the rocky massif, which are estimated to date back to 12,000 BC. And were continued until the 1st century AD – which resulted in a unique writing of history that has long been a UNESCO World Heritage Site. As well as the ruins of Leptis Magna and Sabratha from the Roman era. Libya offers you archaeological sites in the Mediterranean area of ​​outstanding quality.

Sehlabathebe National Park Lesotho

Oberammergau Passion Play

Oberammergau Passion Play

Every ten years the Upper Bavarian municipality of Oberammergau hosts one of the most traditional performances in Germany, the Oberammergau Passion Play. The performances are not only the most famous passion plays in the world, since 2014 they have also been part of the nationwide register of intangible cultural heritage, which, like the UNESCO World Heritage Site, is of particular importance for the preservation of intangible values.

The first performance took place in 1634, when, after a devastating year of plague, the townspeople had vowed to regularly perform a passion play if they were freed from the plague. This tradition has continued to this day, despite temporary bans, including in the 18th century by the clergy of Elector Maximilian III. Joseph, held, and still nearly the entire ward is attending the games.

The text, which has been continuously expanded and redesigned over time, focuses on the last five days in the life of Christ; depending on the staging, there are also living images with scenes from the Old Testament or from the history of the games. After the Second Vatican Council at the end of the 1960s, which documented that the Jews are not guilty of Jesus’ death, the image of the Jews in the play was fundamentally revised at the request of the Catholic Church with the cooperation of various Jewish organizations. The music of the Passion Play, on the other hand, which comes from the pen of Oberammergau teacher and composer Rochus Dedler (1779–1822), has remained the same since it was first performed in 1810.

The planning and rehearsals for the Oberammergau Passion Play always begin several years before the performances. The whole community is entitled to vote in the selection of the director, actors and staging. The games not only represent an important cultural and religious tradition, they also represent an important economic factor with their more than 500,000 visitors from all over the world. Above all, the Passion Play Oberammergau is suitable for every visitor due to the dedication and intensity of its actors unforgettable experience.


Regensburg is one of the oldest German cities and has been continuously settled since Celtic times. The capital of the Upper Palatinate district is the fourth largest city in Bavaria. It has around 140,300 inhabitants, who are spread over the extensive urban area on both banks of the Danube. Regensburg is a bishopric and an important tourist center in Eastern Bavaria.

Regensburg for culture lovers and study travelers

Regensburg has more than 1,300 architectural monuments. On a tour through the city, the Regensburg dynasty towers, the old town hall and the “Stone Bridge” from the 12th century as well as the Herzogshof catch the eye.
The streets of the old town are characterized by historical buildings from many eras. Rich merchant families built opulent houses and villas here. In between there are churches, the bishop’s seat and the imposing St. Peter’s Cathedral, where the famous Regensburg cathedral sparrows regularly appear. Emmeram Castle, the headquarters of Thurn & Taxis, is located a little outside the city center.

Regensburg for nature lovers and active people

Regensburg is cozy and at the same time exciting, as more than 20 museums, exhibitions and memorials show. In the summer months, many interesting events take place in the beautiful parks, in the city center and along the Danube, attracting visitors from all over Germany.
Nature lovers can hike or cycle in the Regensburg avenue belt or the wooded and hilly surrounding area. A special view of Regensburg is offered during a boat trip on the Danube, which also takes you past the two islands of Obere and Untere Wörth in the city area.

Sanssouci Palace

A visit to nearby Potsdam should not be missing on a trip to Berlin. Hardly any other city can boast such a unique architectural ensemble as the Brandenburg capital. UNESCO honored this unique combination of castles and parks in the form that it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The focus of this ensemble is of course the Sanssouci Palace.

It started with old Fritz

Friedrich II laid the foundation stone for the magnificent gardens and the Sanssouci Palace in 1745 when he commissioned the construction of a small rococo summer palace. But it was not until the next century, in 1841, under Friedrich IV, a great-nephew of old Fritz, that the expansion into the palace and the gardens that can be admired today began. Friedrich Wilhelm IV had side wings built on the left and right of the original summer palace of his ancestor. The striking vineyard terraces, which nestle against the slope directly below the castle, were laid out in the time of Frederick II.

The architecture of Sanssouci

The original summer palace with a length of 91 m was built by the architect Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff based on the sketches of Friedrich II. The side wings that were added in the following century, each 31 m long, were again made by Ludwig Persius based on the king’s sketches.
The idea of ​​a summer palace was also retained under Friedrich IV and so all rooms are on one level so that you can access the garden without having to climb stairs. The front as well as the garden are oriented to the south and have magnificent decorations, whereas the north side is kept rather simple.

The German Versailles

Under Friedrich IV, the original place of residence of the old Fritz, who once wanted to be buried on the top terrace, was expanded and rebuilt for representative purposes. Accordingly, the rooms of the palace show themselves in a splendid interior that reminds quite a few visitors of the Palace of Versailles of the French Sun King, Louis XIV. In addition to the castle, it is also the impressive gardens that fascinate every visitor and make you dream of times gone by.

Oberammergau Passion Play Germany

Travel to Beautiful Cities in Bulgaria

Travel to Beautiful Cities in Bulgaria

Here you will find study trips and round trips through the metropolises of Bulgaria


Take a round trip to Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. Sofia is the political, economic and cultural center of Bulgaria and includes many beautiful highlights. On this study trip you will get to know the culture and the most important sights, such as the national theater “Ivan Wasow”, the archaeological museum, the Banya Bashi mosque, the equestrian monument of Tsar Alexander and at the same time the most beautiful statue in the park. Discover the treasures of Sofia on a city break.


European Capital of Culture 2019

Visitors to Plovdiv, also known as Plovdiv, the Bulgarian European Capital of Culture in 2019, can see tourist gems from afar: the historic center is enthroned on three hills. The elevations are called watershed hill, tightrope walker hill and guardian hill. The first Thracian tribes to colonize the historic site, followed by the Romans and the Ottomans. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Bulgaria made a new start as a nation by remembering its own roots. Plovdiv, now the second largest city in the country, rose to become a trading center and developed splendidly. Today, the historic center presents itself to its guests as a picturesque open-air museum with numerous tourist attractions.

The Archaeological Museum displays gold coins

One of the sights of Plovdiv is the Archaeological Museum, the main attraction of which is a gold treasure found in Panagjurishte. The gold coins date from the Thracian era and the 12th century. The Dzhumaja Mosque, which was built in the 15th century, is a magnificent building. The facade is adorned with a sundial, and excellent decorative friezes can be admired in the interior. The Plovdiv Ethnographic Museum is also beautiful. Furniture from the Baroque period is on display on the upper floor. Chamber music is performed in the museum courtyard from June to September. Foundations and individual paths have been exposed from the forum from Roman times.

Performances are still held in the Roman Theater today

One of the tourist attractions in Plovdiv is the Roman stadium, which dates from the 2nd century. The western part and the exit have been preserved. The stadium once had space for 30,000 visitors. Also worth seeing is the Roman theater, also built in the 2nd century. It is still used today for classical theater performances that take place in the months of May, June and September. The view of the wooded Rump Mountains, the Rhodope Mountains, is overwhelming. Friends of classical music will also get their money’s worth in Plovdiv. The city’s Philharmonic Orchestra has an excellent reputation. A trip to the unique Bachkovo Monastery, located a good twenty kilometers south of Plovdiv, is a must on a trip to Plovdiv.

Rhodope Mountains

the mountains of Orpheus

Magnificent nature and almost endless hiking trails – the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria are a true paradise for hikers, climbers, mountain bikers and lovers of beautiful landscapes. The Rhodope Mountains cover almost a seventh of the country, with the western and eastern parts differing greatly from each other. The western part is higher and has an average mountain climate, while the eastern part is more of a hilly relief. The highest peak is the Golyam Perelik at 2191 meters above sea level.

Magnificent nature on the border with Greece

Bulgaria is already known for its natural beauties, and the most picturesque areas of the country are in the Rhodope Mountains. Here, lush green meadows alternate with dark coniferous forests, craggy rocks and impressive gorges. There are also numerous protected plant species such as the so-called “resurrection plant”. According to legend, it grew out of the blood of Orpheus, because it has the unique property that it can awaken to new life even after it has dried up. The ideal climate and diverse vegetation also offer a rich fauna, including many endangered bird species such as the eastern imperial eagle, the red hawk and the corncrake, as well as various species of vulture. If you are lucky, you can also watch wolves and brown bears here.

Every season has its own charm in the Rhodope Mountains. In the summer months, the temperatures are ideal for long hikes and bike tours. But winter sports fans will also get their money’s worth here, as the mountains have two ski centers: Pamporovo and Chepelare. The developed rural tourism offers a great opportunity to get to know the culture and cuisine of the locals. The people of the region are known for their hospitality. The most popular resorts of the Rhodope Mountains are the villages of Gela, Shiroka Laka, Mogilitsa, Leshten, Kovachevitsa, Arda, Trigrad and Orechovo. The Trigrader and Buynov Gorge are definitely recommended for a round trip, because there are three unique caves here: the Devil’s Dragon Cave, the Haramiya and the Yagodina Cave, which are also accessible to visitors.

Valley of roses

The Rose Valley is a region in Bulgaria and geologically consists of two river valleys, in the west of Stryama and in the east of Tundzha. The famous Rose Valley is where the Stredna Gora mountain range and the Balkan Mountains approach. The valley is famous for its rose growing industry, which has been grown there for centuries and which produces nearly half of the world’s rose oil. Leading companies in the health and beauty industry such as “TomyShow Cosmetics” have made this area their home and set up their company headquarters there.

The center of the rose oil industry is Kazanlak, other important cities of the rose industry are Karlovo, Sopot, Kalofer and Pavel Banja. Festivals are held every year to celebrate the area’s roses and rose oil. The Rose Festival takes place in Karlovo and Kazanlak every year on the first weekend in June.

Seductive scent at harvest time

The rose picking season lasts from May to June. During this time, the whole region smells fresh and unique and is covered with colorful flowers. The Damascus rose grown here smells purer and more intense than other varieties. The elaborate collection process, traditionally a task for Bulgarian women and girls, requires great skill and patience. The flowers are carefully cut one by one and placed in wicker baskets which are then sent to the distilleries. The Kazanlak Rose Festival, held at the time when the roses are picked, is one of the most popular and beautiful festivals in the country. Many guests from Bulgaria and abroad gather in the city and witness colorful roses, happy songs and traditional rituals. In the early morning the solemn rose picking takes place, when pretty girls and women put on festive Bulgarian costumes and collect the rose petals. This is followed by the election of a rose queen – the most beautiful girl who takes part in this annual ritual. The cheerful celebrations then continue with a folkloric parade and the tasting of rose foods and drinks.

Travel to Beautiful Cities in Bulgaria

Turkey Recent History

Turkey Recent History

1980 coup

Between 1979 and 1980, the government of Süleymán Demirel decided to stop the alliance with Western countries, and with it, the hope of development of the private sector of the economy, which was supported by foreign aid. The Republican Party requested state control of the elementary means of production and the establishment of new alliances with the Third World and the communist bloc.

Extremist groups on the left and right again carried out the assassinations of political figures and carried out terrorist actions. The December of September of 1980, the army took control of the government and suspended the constitution. The new rulers imposed martial law, banned political activity, limited the right to the press and imprisoned thousands of citizens, accused of terrorists.
The Army ruled through the National Security Council, which appointed General Kenan Evren head of state, while Admiral Bülent Ulusu became Prime Minister.

Return to democracy

According to, the greatest advance towards the establishment of a civil government took place in 1982, when a new Constitution was promulgated, by which Evren was appointed President of the Republic. The parliamentary elections of November 1983 were an overwhelming victory for the Party of the Motherland (which had the support of the Army for its conservative right-wing character), whose top leader, Turgut Ozal, was appointed prime minister.

In 1989, Ozal was elected as the first civil head of state since 1960, and Yilidirim Akbulut replaced him as prime minister. Akbulut was replaced by Mesut Yilmaz in 1991, in turn replaced by economist Tansu Çiller in 1993, leader of the Straight Path Party. Turkey collaborated with international forces in the Iraqi expulsion from Kuwait between 1990 and 1991, although the Turkish troops did not participate in the Persian Gulf War. Following the war, and following an unfortunate uprising by the Iraqi Kurds, hundreds of thousands of refugees crossed the border into Turkey, although refugee camps were established under Allied administration in the vicinity of the Turkish border.

Since 1984, an undeclared war has been going on between successive Turkish governments and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), a Marxist-Leninist group that is trying to achieve the autonomy of the lands of 15 million Kurds by methods. terrorists.

The conflict is mainly located in the southeast of the country where the largest concentration of Kurdish population meets. In March 1995, the government of Tansu Çiller showed its intention to destroy the separatist movement, invading 40 kilometers of the Kurdish region located northwest of Iraq and which was a protected area of the United Nations. At the same time, the government passed more liberal laws allowing for the legalization of moderate Kurdish nationalist groups and the reopening of Kurdish schools.

2016 coup

In the evening hours of the 15 of July of 2016 they began circulating in Ankara dozens of military vehicles and aircraft. Moments later, an official statement confirmed that a faction of the Turkish Army was attempting to seize power and overthrow the government of Recep Tayyip Erdogan. In the midst of these actions, a total of 265 people died, including 161 government and civilian forces and 104 of the conspirators, 1,440 were injured and 2,839 soldiers were arrested after the failure of the coup [1] [2] .

The country’s Superior Board of Judges and Prosecutors (HSYK for its acronym in Turkish) dismissed 2,745 judges for their alleged links to the cleric Fetulá Gulen, an exile in the United States who defends the creation of a parallel state in Turkey.

2017 Constitutional Reform Plebiscite

In 2017, the Turks go to the polls to vote on a constitutional reform Plebiscite that proposes the transition from a parliamentary model to the presidential one, having an acceptance of 51.32 percent of support, compared to 48.68 percent of those who They are against.

With this modification, all the executive power will be concentrated in the hands of the president and the figure of prime minister will be eliminated. In addition, the head of state may appoint vice presidents, ministers and senior officials and presidential decrees will influence decisions on the creation, dissolution, functions and structure of the ministries.

The president also obtains the right to announce the state of emergency with the approval of Parliament, appoint various members of the highest judicial body of the country and may issue decrees without the approval of legislators. These changes to the constitution will take effect from 2019.

Many international observers who accompanied this process contested the result since the legal framework was inadequate for the realization of a genuinely democratic process. This was stated by the president of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Cezar Florin who also assured that the state of emergency should never be used to undermine the rule of law.

For many of the international observers, the regulations and instructions adopted by the Higher Electoral Council (YSK) are insufficient for the holding of a democratic referendum.

Turkey Recent History

History of Seoul, South Korea

History of Seoul, South Korea

Seoul’s history dates back to 18 BCE. However, humans have occupied the area that now constitutes Seoul since the Paleolithic. Seoul has been a great settlement for over 2,000 years. It has been the capital of numerous kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula since it was established.

Baekje and the early prehistoric era

Humans are believed to have lived in the area that is now Seoul on the lower reaches of the Han River during the Paleolithic and archaeological research programs show that people began to lead determined lives beginning in the Neolithic Age. With the introduction of bronze objects around 700 BCE, the settlements gradually began to spread from the river basin to the inland areas.

In 18 BCE, the Baekje kingdom founded its capital city, Wiryeseong, which is now the interior of Seoul. Baekje subsequently developed from a member state of the Mahan confederation into one of the three kingdoms of Korea. There are several remains of city walls in the Seoul area dating from this time. Among them, Pungnap Toseong, a wall of earth in the southeastern part of present-day Seoul, (in Pungnap-dong, just near the Jamsil area) that is widely regarded as the main Wiryeseong site. However, another earthen wall, Toseong Mongchon, nearby, also dates from the early Baekje era.

All of these sites are in the south of the Han River, and do not belong to the Seoul Historic District (centered on what is now Jongno), which is well in the north of the river.

Era of the Three Kingdoms

As the three kingdoms competed for this strategic region of the Korean Peninsula, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in 392 and from Goguryeo to the Silla- Baekje alliance in 551.

Silla soon gained complete control of the city and the peninsula, and during the Unified Silla period, Hanyang was first considered a district of the city, and later the city itself.

It was Goryeo

It was thought that the kingdom that controlled the Han River Valley would also have strategic control of the entire peninsula, as it was a transportation hub. In 1104, King Sukjong of the Goryeo Dynasty built a palace in Seoul, which was then known as Namgyeong or “Capital of the South”. Seoul developed into a large-scale city with political significance during this time.

It was Joseon and the Korean Empire

At the beginning of the Joseon dynasty in 1394, the capital was moved to Seoul, also known as Hanyang and later as Hanseong, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty.

Originally completely surrounded by an imposing circular wall to provide its citizens with safety from wild animals such as the tiger, thieves and attacks. The city has grown beyond the walls and although the walls are gone (except in the mountains north of the downtown area), the gates remain near the central area of Seoul, among which Sungnyemun (commonly known as Namdaemun, or South Gate) and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dongdaemun, or East Gate), as well as Sukjeongmun (commonly known as Bukdaemun, or North Gate) and four smaller gates which include Changuimun and Hyehwamun. During the Joseon Dynasty, doors opened and closed every day, accompanied by the tolling of large bells.

In the 19th century, after hundreds of years of isolation, Seoul opened its doors to foreigners and began to modernize. Seoul became the first city in East Asia to have electricity, trams, water, telephone, and telegraph systems all at once. Much of this was due to trade with the United States. For example, the Seoul Electric Company, Seoul Electric Trolley, and Seoul Fresh Spring Water Company were US-owned companies. In 1904, an American by the name of Angus Hamilton visited the city and said: “The streets of Seoul are magnificent, wide, clean, admirably done and well drained. The narrow, dirty alleys have been widened, the canals have been covered, roads widened Seoul is within measurable distance of becoming the tallest, most interesting and cleanest city in the East. ”

Colonial korea

When the Japanese empire annexed Korea, it made Seoul its colonial capital. While under colonial rule (1910 – 1945), the city was called Gyeongseong. Gyeongseong was an urban prefecture like present-day Kyoto or Osaka with two districts: Gyeongseong itself and Yongsan-gu. The Japanese General Government Building was the seat of colonial government during colonial Korea and was torn down in 1995.


After World War II and the liberation of Korea, the city took its current name from Seoul. When the Republic of Korea (South Korea) declared itself as a state, it adopted the city as its capital.

In 1950, the Korean War broke out and Seoul changed hands between North Korean forces and South Korean forces four times, leaving the city largely destroyed at the end of the war. An estimate of the damage indicates that at least 191,000 buildings, 55,000 houses and 1,000 factories were left in ruins. In addition, there was an avalanche of refugees from the north, increasing the population of the city, to about 2.5 million people. More than half of them were left homeless.

After the war, Seoul became the focus of an immense reconstruction and modernization effort. The rapid economic growth achieved during the industrialization of the 1960s and 1970s increased the living standards of residents considerably. The outbreak of tall office and apartment buildings began in the city during the construction boom of the 1980s. Pollution and traffic jams became major issues due to accelerated urbanization in the country and large numbers of people began to move to and around Seoul. Despite a green belt around the city to prevent urban sprawl, the Seoul metropolitan area soon became the third largest in the world in terms of population and one of the busiest.

According to Youremailverifier, Seoul was the host city of the Olympic Games of 1988, as well as one of the venues of the World Cup FIFA 2002.

During the 1990s, the city began to attract many workers from other countries, producing demographic changes. Previously, almost all of Seoul’s residents were from Korea, with the exception of a small Chinese minority. At present, there are an estimated 200,000 foreign nationals living in Seoul. These include workers from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam.

In addition, there are many language teachers from countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the United States, and the United Kingdom. As a large business and financial center, Seoul also has many executives and analysts from North America, Europe, and Japan. Seoul is ranked seventh in the world on the Fortune 500 list for the number of multinational companies headquartered there. It is also the second most expensive city, ahead of Tokyo and Hong Kong(ranked 3 and 4, respectively).

Transfer of the capital

The November of August of 2004, the Korean government of the South announced that the capital would be located in the Gongju area from 2007 to relieve pressure on the population in Seoul and government at a safe distance from Korea to the North. Gongju is approximately 120 kilometers south of Seoul. The government estimates that the measure will probably not be completed before 2012. Although part of it is part of the electoral program, this plan has sparked controversy throughout the country. On 21 October as as 2004, the Constitutional Court declared on the basis of customary law that the special law for the transfer of the capital is unconstitutional since relocation is a serious matter that requires a national referendum or revision of the Constitution, thereby ending the dispute.

At the end of 2004, however, the Government of South Korea announced its plans to pass most of the powers of the national state, with the exception of the Executive Branch, to Gongju, thus evading the violation of the Constitutional Court ruling and remaining Seoul as the national capital. Starting in 2011, preliminary construction of new government buildings has started in Gonju area. Naturally, no government body wants to get away from the center of power in Seoul, for which agencies will be forced to move is the subject of intense behind-the-scenes debate.

History of Seoul, South Korea

Syria Economy

Syria Economy


The cautious economic reform program begun under H. al-Assad in the 1990s was significantly accelerated after his son Bashar came to power. Against the background of declining oil revenues, the aim was to transform the former planned economy into a market economy. The increase in the pace of reform with the aim of encouraging private capital to invest more was due to the country’s foreign trade situation, which had become much more difficult since the 3rd Gulf War. With the Syrian Civil War and the i.a. Sanctions imposed by the USA and the EU collapsed and the supply situation for large parts of the population became precarious. With a gross national income (GNI) per resident of US $ 2,750, Syria was one of the middle-income developing countries in 2010.

Foreign trade: Syria’s foreign trade volume is heavily dependent on the price of crude oil, with crude oil and petroleum products accounting for more than a third of exports. Foreign trade is severely restricted by war and international sanctions (from 2011/12). In addition to oil, Syria exported textiles and cotton, food, and metals and metal products. On the import side, there were fuels, chemical products and metals, as well as food. The most important trading partners were Arab states.


According to youremailverifier, agriculture (including forestry and fisheries) remains an important factor in the Syrian economy despite accelerated industrialization. It generates (2016) around 19.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and employs around 17% of the workforce. The ownership structure has been fundamentally changed by agricultural reforms that have been carried out in the meantime; private and cooperative ownership are predominant. The main crops are wheat, barley, fruit (especially grapes) and vegetables (especially tomatoes), olives and sugar beets. The main cultivation areas extend over the coastal strip, the arable plains in the north and northeast (new development in the Djesire) and the irrigation areas on the Euphrates and Khabur. The irrigated area covers about 1.34 million hectares, which is about a third of the arable land. The entire central and eastern part of Syria can only be used for grazing purposes. Livestock breeding, especially extensive sheep farming, has a share of around 30% in agricultural production.

Natural resources

The heavy, sulfur-rich crude oil, which was discovered in northeast Syria in 1966, has been extracted since 1968 and has been exported since the mid-1970s. New oil deposits (including the largest oil deposits in Syria to date) have been developed and exploited since 1984 near Deir ez-Zor in the east of the country; the oil extracted here is light and low in sulfur and can therefore also be processed in the local refineries (Homs and Banias). The – declining – oil production reached 1.1 million t in 2016. The secured reserves are only 300 million t. The production of natural gas could be increased after the turn of the millennium. However, the delivery volume has fallen sharply again since 2011 (2016: 3.6 billion m 3); it is mainly used for the operation of power plants and for further processing. The most important raw material after crude oil and natural gas is phosphate, which has been mined at Palmyra since 1973 and around 80% exported. The mining volume is 750,000 t (2015) (2011: 3.5 million t). There are also natural asphalt deposits as well as rock salt and gypsum deposits.


In the manufacturing industry, which generated around 19% of GDP in 2016, the oil and gas sector dominates. The most important areas of the manufacturing industry are the food, textile and clothing industries. Younger sectors are the chemical industry, machine and vehicle construction as well as the cement and production of fertilizers from natural phosphate. The industry is mainly concentrated in Aleppo, Damascus, Hama and Homs. The handicraft has a long tradition.


In 2010, 8.5 million foreign guests, mostly from Arab countries, visited Syria. The income amounted to US $ 3.8 billion and was thus an important economic factor. With the civil war (from 2011) tourism came to a standstill. In addition to natural landscape attractions, the old towns of Damascus and Aleppo, the ancient sites of Palmyra, Bosra and in the northern Syrian limestone massif (Christian “Dead Cities” and Simeon’s monasteries) as well as the fortresses of Arabs and crusaders were the main attractions.


The traffic routes are relatively well developed in the more densely populated western Syrian region. The railway network connects the industrial areas in the north with the port cities and Damascus. It is connected to the Turkish and Iraqi networks. The most important mode of transport, however, is the approximately 70,000 km long road network, on which around 95% of goods are transported. The main traffic axis runs as a north-south highway from the Turkish border via Aleppo, Hama, Homs and Damascus to Jordan. The largest sea ports are those of Latakia, Banias (petroleum terminal) and Tartus (Phosphate export, grain import). International air traffic is maintained by the national airline Syrian Arab Airlines and the private Cham Wings Airlines, founded in 2007. The main airport is Damascus International Airport.

Syria Economy

Norway History

Norway History

The Danish-Norwegian Union

While Sweden began to break away from the Union by force in the middle of the 15th century, the Norwegian Imperial Council elected Christian I of Denmark to be king in 1450 (Union Treaty of Bergen). Until 1814 Norway was ruled by Danish kings from the House of Oldenburg. Although Norway was guaranteed independence, it increasingly became a Danish vassal state without political powers, but with its own laws and courts. In 1536 the Reformation was introduced in Norway, in the same year the Norwegian self-government by Christian III. repealed (since 1572 office of governor).

In 1468/72 Norway lost the Orkney and Shetland Islands, as a result of the Swedish-Danish wars Jämtland and Härjedalen (1645) and Bohuslän (1658).

In the 18th century Norway experienced a very different socio-historical development from Denmark. The peasants, who were largely not dependent on the numerically weak nobility, became largely landowners through the purchase of crown, aristocratic and church land. In the dispute with the central Danish administration and with the rapidly growing stratum of peasants without landed property (Husmenn, “Häusler”), they developed a pronounced class consciousness. After the economic decline in the 14./15. In the 19th century, there was a significant improvement in the economic situation after 1500. The Hanseatic League no longer played a dominant role; Fish exports remained important, shipbuilding, timber industry (sawmills), and silver mining in the 16th and 17th centuries, Copper and iron as well as the steady expansion of the merchant fleet. This favorable development was reinforced by the introduction of absolutism in 1660. The trade was v. a. aligned to England and Holland. – Oslo burned down completely in 1624 and was rebuilt under the name Christiania (until 1924; later spelling Kristiania).

The Swedish-Norwegian Union

In the Treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814), the Swedish Crown Prince Karl Johann (Karl XIV. Johann ) of Denmark obtained the cession of Norway with the exception of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. However, an elected assembly in Eidsvoll decided on May 17, 1814 a liberal imperial constitution and elected the Danish governor, Prince Christian Friedrich (later also Christian VIII. King of Denmark), as King of Norway. When Swedish troops marched in, Karl Johann forced the election of the King of Sweden, Karl XIII, in Moss on November 4, 1814 ., to the Norwegian king. The constitution of May 17, 1814 was retained with a few changes. However, Norway did not achieve equality in the Union; there was a Norwegian Council of State, but the king was represented in Norway by a viceroy or governor; Sweden determined foreign policy.

The reign of Charles XIV. Johann (1818–44) was marked by the struggle of the Storting against royal power. The Storting pushed through the abolition of the nobility (1821) and rejected the proposed introduction of an unlimited right of objection for the king (1824). The opposition weakened under Oskar I (1844–59), who granted the Norwegians their own coat of arms and flag. Oskar II. (1872–1905) rescinded the office of governor in 1873. In the 1870s, under the leadership of Storting President Johan Sverdrup (* 1816, † 1892) a liberal and peasant left in opposition to the conservative ruling party. After the election victory of the Liberals (Venstre) in 1882, the condemnation of the Conservative government of Selmer by the Reichsgericht led to a new crisis, the solution of which was the commissioning of Sverdrup to form the cabinet in 1884. This government, which emerged from the majority of the Storting, triumphed parliamentarianism in Norway.

In addition to the struggle for independence within the Union with the aim of complete sovereignty and the development of a liberal parliamentarism, in financially weak and infrastructurally underdeveloped Norway it was also about promoting the economic and technical areas: 1816 Foundation of the Bank of Norway; 1854 first railway line; 1909 Completion of the Oslo – Bergen railway line; before 1900 consistent use of water power to generate electricity as a prerequisite for industrialization; Creation of a merchant fleet (the third largest in the world at the beginning of the First World War). However, it could not be prevented that around 1 million Norwegians emigrated to North America from around 1850/60 to 1914 (high points of the wave of emigration: 1879, 1882, 1893). Men received universal suffrage in 1898 and women in 1913.

Norway History


According to Youremailverifier, Oslo, [ Norwegian uslu ] (1624-1924 Christiania, Kristiania from 1877), is the capital of Norway, with most (2021) 697 000 residents city in the country, at the northern end of the Oslo fjord.

Oslo is the economic, trade and cultural center of Norway with universities and museums (e.g. Kon-Tiki Museum, Viking Ship House). In addition to container terminals, the seaport also has moorings for cruise ships and has ferry connections with Copenhagen and Kiel.

Oslo was founded in the middle of the 11th century and rebuilt after a major fire by King Christian IV (1624). The oldest building is Akershus Fortress from the 13th century. In the north-west of Oslo is the Holmenkollen, the scene of international competitions in skiing.

Saint Martin Geography

Saint Martin Geography

Saint Martin is one shared between France and the Netherlands Caribbean island. The only land border between these two countries is located on the 94 square kilometer island. This chapter deals with thatFrenchPart of the island of Saint Martin, the part of the island of Sint Maarten belongs to the Netherlands Antilles and is therefore also presented in the chapter Netherlands Antilles.

Saint Martin is located about 250 kilometers north of Guadeloupe and belongs to the so-called Northern Archipelago. The highest point is the Pic du Paradis (424 meters). Until 2007, Saint Martin and the island of Saint Barthelemy formed an arrondissement of the overseas department of Guadeloupe. Since February 22, 2007, Saint Martin is a French Territorial Collective (Collectivité d’outre-mer). Saint Martin belongs to the European Union and represents the westernmost point of the community. The island was discovered by Christopher Columbus on November 11th 1493, the day of Saint Martin.

Geographically, the island is divided into two parts : Grande-Terre and Terres-Basses, which are connected by two narrow strips of land, and include the salt water pond, “étang” of Simsonbaai. The capital of the French Saint Martin is the port city of Marigot, with around 5,700 residents. Sights here include the colonial style buildings.

Everywhere along the coast, where there are 37 white sandy beaches, there are more strips of land that separate saltwater ponds from the sea. With the exception of the picturesque town of Colombier, the interior is practically uninhabited. Walkers and hikers can walk through the green valleys and hills in peace. On the impressive rocky beaches or the flat white sandy beaches, everyone will find their ideal place for swimming or sunbathing. For active people, all kinds of water sports are offered in the warm and crystal clear water. Snorkeling, scuba diving in the coral reefs, windsurfing and much more.

Saint Martin (Caribbean): important dates for your trip

Area: 54.4 km². The island of Saint Martin is the smallest land mass in the world, shared by two independent states (France and the Netherlands).

Population: 30,615 (July 2011, CIA). Creoles (mulattos), blacks,Guadeloupe Mestizos, whites, East Indian

Population density: 563 people per km²

Administrative headquarters: Marigot (approx. 5,700 residents)

Highest point: Pic du Paradis, 424 m

Lowest point: Caribbean, 0 m

Form of government: Until 2007, the French part of Saint-Martins belonged together with the neighboring island of Saint-Barthélemy to the arrondissement of the French overseas department of Guadeloupe, the Arrondissement des Îles du Nord (Arrondissement of the Northern Islands).
After a referendum, Saint-Martin separated – alongside Saint Barthélemy – from Guadeloupe on February 22, 2007 and became its own collectivité d’outre mer. The administration corresponds to that of a French commune. Non-French people from an EU country are allowed to vote in local council elections on Saint Martin. Saint Martin is the westernmost part of the European Union.

Head of Government: President of the Territorial Council Aline Hanson, since April 17, 2013

Head of State: French President Francois Hollande, since May 15, 2012

Language: The official language in Saint Martin is French, English and Creole are also spoken

Religion: Mostly Catholics (95%), but also Protestants, Jehovah’s Witnesses and Hindus

Local time: CET – 5 h

There is no change between summer and winter time on Saint Martin.
The time difference to Central Europe is -5 hours in winter and -6 hours in summer.

International phone code: + 590

Internet are used, since

Mains voltage: 220 V, 50 Hz. An adapter is usually not required.

Saint Martin (France): Map and Geography

Saint Martin (officially: collectivité de Saint-Martin) is a French overseas territory in the Caribbean. It was created on February 22, 2007, and covers the northern part of the island of Saint-Martin and the neighboring islands, the largest of which is Île Tintamarre. The southern part of the island, Sint Maarten, is part of the Netherlands Antilles.

The highest elevation in both the French Area as well as on the entire island is the Pic du Paradise with 424 m.

There are no rivers, however numerous dry river beds. The hilltops and slopes are covered by dry forest.

Saint Martin Geography

Manchester in England

Manchester in England

According to ABBREVIATIONFINDER, City of Manchester is located in the north west of England and has a population of 486,000 people. After London and Birmingham, Manchester is considered the third most important city in England. Manchester is located in the county of Metropolitan Country Greater Manchester.

The city has an exciting History behind it and a wide range of attractions to offer. The image of Manchester is characterized by buildings of the most varied of styles. There are buildings from the time of Victorian architecture to modern times.

Outside the city there are still factories from the days of the cotton industry. Today apartments and offices are housed in these.

The many brick buildings are particularly characteristic of Manchester. The most impressive building in the English city is the Gothic Cathedral of Manchester. The cathedral was built in 1421 in the perpendicular style. The tower of the sacred building was built many years later: in 1876.

The grain exchange is also worth a visit. It is known by the locals as the Corn Exchange. It was built in 1897 and is now used by the “The Triangle” shopping center.

If you visit Manchester, you should n’t miss the neo-Gothic Manchester City Hall. The building was designed by Alfred Waterhouse. In the sixties several large skyscrapers were built, which contributed to the creation of the new city skyline. The tallest building of the skyscrapers is the Beetham Tower, built in 2006. This houses a hotel, restaurants and apartments.
In the spring of 2008, construction began on England’s tallest building, the Piccadilly Tower.

Relaxation is definitely guaranteed in Manchester. There are more than one hundred and thirty- five parks and green spaces here. An absolute must is Heaton Park in the north of the city. The green area has an area of ​​250 hectares and is one of the largest parks in Europe. The St. Peter’s Square and Albert Square have to offer its visitors numerous monuments. These are dedicated to kings and famous people.

Music and theater are also of great importance in Manchester. The city has two symphony orchestras, the BBC Philharmonic Orchestra and the Halle Orchestra. Anyone interested in symphonic music would be in the Free Trade Hall and the Bridge Hall are just right. The latter building was dedicated to the Earl of Bridgewater. In both buildings you can spend wonderful evenings and enjoy symphonic music. Furthermore, Manchester is the founding place and also the hometown of various well-known music groups and singers, e.g. B. Oasis, Hollies or Take That.

Pop music concerts and other events take place regularly in the largest event hall in the English city. More than 21,000 spectators fit into the hall.

History and culture are also not to be neglected on a vacation in Manchester. The city has some interesting museums and galleries.

In the Museum of Science and Industry you can find out more about the industrial past of Manchester. A collection of locomotives, industrial machines, and airplanes is exhibited here. The Museum of Transport shows its visitors historic buses and trams. Anyone interested in natural history and Egyptological collections is in the right place at the Manchester Museum, which opened in 1880.

The Imperial War Museum North is worth a visit not only for the military history collection exhibited there, but also for the building itself. The impressive building was designed by the well-known architect Daniel Libeskind.

One of the most important art museums in the city is the Manchester Art Gallery. An impressive collection of European and Pre-Raphaelite paintings is exhibited here. The Whitworth Art Gallery is also worth seeing. The main focus of the gallery is modern art. Other interesting museums in the city include the Cornerhouse, the Urbis Center, the Manchester Costume Gallery at Plat Fields Park, and the Peoples History Museum.

However, you don’t have to spend all day sightseeing on a vacation in Manchester. The English city is also great for shopping. The main shopping streets in the city are the Market Street, King Street and Deansgate. At the New Cathedral Street and at the Exchange Square there are a lot of high-quality shops, z. B. the luxury department store Harvey Nicols. The two shopping centers Arndale Center and The Triangle are also worth a visit.

There is a great nightlife in Manchester. There are many hot spots, such as the city’s lesbian and gay district.

Best travel time for England

All in all, late April to September is the best time to travel in England. Most holidaymakers travel to England in summer, especially in the high season between the end of July and August (school holidays). Especially the regions near the sea, National parks and popular cities like York, Oxford or Bath are pretty full now. Opening times are often shortened between October and Easter, and some sights remain completely closed in winter. In the big cities (especially London) there is enough to discover in every season.

Manchester in England

West Berlin

West Berlin

Forced by the behavior of the SED (primarily due to the SED-controlled occupation of the New Town Hall in the east of the city by violent demonstrators, September 1948) and the Soviet occupying power, the magistrate and the House of Representatives partially relocated their seat to the west of the city, among others. in the Schöneberg town hall. For the West Berliners, the USA, Great Britain and France had changed from occupying powers to protecting powers. In the elections of December 5, 1948, which the magistrate residing in Berlin (West) had planned for the whole of Berlin as part of its constitutional powers, the SPD won an absolute majority; the House of Representatives elected Reuter again as Lord Mayor, who could only take office in the west of the city. The economic and cultural reconstruction of Berlin (West) began – intensified after the end of the blockade; In the process, within the framework of the reservation rights of the Western powers, which now continued their activities on a three-power basis, an increasingly dense network of ties developed between the western part of Berlin and the (later) federal territory. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for acronyms about Berlin.

After the state division of Germany (September / October 1949) all of Berlin and the Berlin question remained the focus of the German question in the East-West conflict (German history). Greater Berlin in its expansion created in 1920 was a state of the Federal Republic of Germany according to the Berlin constitution of September 1, 1950 and the Basic Law, but this provision was only valid to a limited extent until 1990 – in order to preserve the four-power status: due to the reservations of the western occupying powers the approval of the Basic Law (Article 23 GG for Berlin suspended) and the Constitution of Berlin (Article 1 II, III), Berlin was not allowed to be governed by the federal government; the Western Allies held fast to the four-power responsibility for Greater Berlin. Thereafter, all of Berlin was subject to the four-power control of the occupying powers according to the London Protocol of September 12, 1944; also the Four Power Agreement (Berlin Agreement) of September 3, 1971 underlined that West Berlin is “not a constitutive part” of the Federal Republic of Germany. According to the Western Allies, the supreme power in Berlin, according to occupation law, lay solely with the Allies; sovereignty over Berlin (West) was exercised by the three Western Allies. In the context of these occupation reservations, however, ever closer relations with the Federal Republic of Germany developed; Berlin (West), as a city-state at the same time as the state and municipality, was represented in the Bundestag by 22 members elected and sent from the center of the House of Representatives and by four members in the Bundesrat. Due to the Allied reservation, the Berlin representatives had voting rights in the plenum of both bodies, which were limited to questions of the rules of procedure. but full right to speak and give advice as well as voting rights in committees and parliamentary groups. The federal laws and international treaties of the federal government did not apply directly in Berlin (West), but usually contained the Berlin clause. The Federal Constitutional Court was responsible for constitutional complaints against acts of the Berlin authorities. not responsible. The essential principles of the Basic Law and the fundamental rights, on the other hand, were also considered federal law in Berlin (West) because of a reference in the Berlin constitution. The law on the position of the State of Berlin in the federal financial system of 4.1.1952 was decisive for inclusion in the legal, economic and financial system of the Federal Republic of Germany; here also the adoption of federal laws by the Berlin state legislature was regulated. Berlin (West) was included in the EC with the consent of the Western Allies.

The city’s ties to the Federal Republic of Germany were guaranteed by the western allies even after 1971; they found their expression among other things. in the fact that numerous federal authorities and courts had their seat here. In international law, Berlin (West) was represented by the Federal Republic of Germany.

The importance of Berlin (West) lay in its direct influence on the GDR and until 1961 consisted in the possibility for residents of the GDR and Berlin (East) to reach the Federal Republic of Germany via Berlin (West). After the failure of the Berlin Conference on Germany (1954), the Western powers issued a guarantee of protection for Berlin (West) in the London Three-Power Declaration (1954), which was approved by NATO. When the Soviet leadership under N. S. Khrushchev demanded that West Berlin be converted into a demilitarized “Free City” within six months (Berlin ultimatum), there was a second major Berlin crisis triggered (11/27/1958). The Soviet threat led to renewed Western declarations of guarantees for their urban sectors, but also to efforts by the adversaries to compromise to avoid a military confrontation. After talks with Khrushchev in Vienna (June 3rd / 4th, 1961), where he confirmed his ultimatum, American President J. F. Kennedy summarized American Berlin policy in July 1961 in the announcement of the Three Essentials. The USSR then paved the way for the GDR to build the Berlin Wall, with political support from the Warsaw Pact states(from August 13, 1961) free; In doing so, the GDR prevented, above all, the flow of refugees from its territory. After lengthy negotiations, residents of Berlin (West) were able to visit relatives in Berlin (East) from 1963–66 under four permit agreements.

In close ties to the rest of Germany, Berlin (West) tried to develop its cultural and economic development further. In the course of a reform discussion at the Berlin University, especially the Free University (FU), which was characterized by anti-authoritarian, neo-Marxist approaches, a radical socialist movement developed between 1966 and 1968, which expressed itself in many, often militant demonstrations (APO).

From March 1970, there were extensive four-power negotiations, and on June 3, 1972 the Berlin Agreement of September 3, 1971 came into force. Access to Berlin (West) was regulated in a German-German transit agreement of December 17, 1971, the modalities of visits by West Berliners to Berlin (East) and the GDR in a travel and visit agreement between the government of the GDR and the Senate of Berlin (West) set. The GDR issued extremely limited permits for visits to the West (reasons for approval: retirement age, disability, death of next of kin, etc.); by increasing and expanding the mandatory exchange of money (“minimum exchange”) per day of visit since 1980, it has cut the number of people entering from the west to less than half.

Until 1975 the SPD remained the strongest party in the House of Representatives; in the elections it won an absolute majority several times and since the constitution of 1950 came into force with Reuter (until 1953), O. Suhr (1955–57), W. Brandt(1957–66), H. Albertz (1966/67), Klaus Schütz (* 1926, † 2012; 1967–77), Dietrich Stobbe (* 1938, † 2011; 1977–81) and H.-J. Vogel (1981) the Governing Mayor; 1953–55 W. Schreiber (CDU) held this office. With the elections of 1975 the CDU became the strongest party and from 1981 provided the governing mayor: 1981–84 R. von Weizsäcker and 1984–89 E. Diepgen. The coalition of the SPD and Alternative List (in the House of Representatives since 1981) formed in February 1989 under W. Momper (SPD) broke up at the end of November 1990.

West Berlin

Paraguay Country Information

Paraguay Country Information

Paraguay is a landlocked country in South America that borders Bolivia to the north and west, Brazil to the east, and Argentina to the south and west. The name of the state means “water that goes to the water”, derived from the language of the indigenous people, Guaraní. The currency of Paraguay is of the same name as the language – Guaraní.

The official languages ​​are Spanish and Guaraní. In the rural regions, the population speaks more of Guaraní. Basic knowledge of Spanish is an advantage – regardless of whether it is a vacation trip or a longer stay – as English is only understood and spoken by very few locals.

With almost 407,000 km², the national territory of Paraguay is roughly the same size as Germany and Switzerland put together. The number of residents is about 7 million. Most people live in the Central department (metropolitan area of ​​the capital Asunción). The rest of the country, especially the Gran Chaco in the north, is very sparsely populated. A real insider tip for people who love their privacy.

But Paraguay is also very popular as a new adopted home with pensioners and self-sufficient people. 5% of the already low population are immigrants of German origin or their descendants. As a result, emigrants who do not want to miss the German culture and language in everyday life do not have to do without it in some areas in Paraguay. Numerous German-speaking doctors and service providers are available if required.

From a bureaucratic point of view, the step into self-employment is much easier for employed people than in Germany, as there are few regulations and barriers to cope with in order to carry out a trade. In addition, the country attracts immigration with low real estate pricestaxes and the necessary start-up capital.

In Paraguay there are modern supermarkets and shopping centers with almost all products that are also available in Europe. Of course, the offer in the country is not that abundant. The roads in some parts of Paraguay also leave a lot to be desired. Order and cleanliness are not rated as highly as perhaps in Germany. But people themselves are meticulous about good personal hygiene.


As a rule, you enter as a tourist. A valid passport is required for this, which is valid for at least 6 months after entry. This entitles you to a 90-day visa-free stay, which can be extended once for a further 90 days for a fee.

Are you planning a longer stay or are you planning to immigrate to Paraguay? In the state capital Asunción, the permanent residence permit and the Paraguayan identity card are applied for by submitting all papers and providing proof of funds. You can find out which papers are required on the next page under Immigration Regulations.

Climate and Weather

The country can be roughly divided into 2 climate zones. The zones are separated from each other by the Paraguay River.

The first zone, the northwest of Paraguay, with the Gran Chaco has a subtropical to tropical climate. Midsummer in this area (November to March) reaches temperatures of over 50 degrees in the sun. It is a dry heat. The winters (June to September) are mild. At night, the temperature can be in the single-digit range, but during the day it warms up in the sun to around 20 degrees. The rainy season falls from April to June. In the remaining months, not a single drop of rain may fall.

The east of Paraguay and thus the second climatic zone is characterized by a humid subtropical climate. The average maximum temperatures in this area are around 30 degrees in summer. Often the perceived temperature is a lot higher due to the humidity. On hot summer days, the temperatures in urban areas can sometimes rise to almost 40 degrees.

In the winter months (May to August), cold winds from the Antarctic lead to temperatures of sometimes below freezing point at night. During the day, it usually warms up here in the sun to a good 25 degrees, unless it is cloudy. The rainy season in the east of the country falls between March and May and October and November.

Vegetation, plants

In line with the two climatic zones that define the country, the vegetation can also be divided into two categories. The Gran Chaco in the northwest of the country has a savannah-like steppe landscape, whereas the east of the country is green all year round. Paraguay was given the name “Garden of South America”, probably thanks to the ever-green East.

Garden lovers get their money’s worth here. Citrus fruits of all kinds, bananas, papaya, passion fruit, wild orchids growing on trees and much more can be found in the gardens of Paraguay. However, due to the severe drought, gardening in the north-west of the country costs more nerves and perseverance than in the east of the country.

Anyone struggling with hay fever in Europe usually has little or no problems here.

Animals, animal species

There are some rare animal species in Paraguay such as parrots, hummingbirds, armadillos, various types of lizards and snakes, and much more.

The bird world is particularly diverse. Even in the greater Asunción area, over 100 different species of birds have been sighted.

Paraguay Country Information

Trekking Adventure in The Faroe Islands

Trekking Adventure in The Faroe Islands

Put on your hiking boots and take a few deep breaths of the refreshing Atlantic wind as you now experience the Faroe Islands in the absolute best way – step by step.

The Faroe Islands are a real paradise for nature lovers and can you experience nature in a better way than on foot? We have tailored a trip where you maximize beautiful hikes by having a rental car and in this way can easily take you between different hiking trails. The Faroe Islands have both a well-functioning road network that connects the different islands with bridges, ferries and tunnels as well as lots of hiking trails.

You will have fantastic hiking experiences on the bird island of Mykines, the northern islands around Kalsoy and Svínoy, on top of the country’s highest mountain Slættaratindur and along old hiking trails.

Day 1: Departure from Scandinavia and arrival in the Faroe Islands

You land in the Faroe Islands and pick up the rental car at the airport. You continue towards Gásadalur on the island of Vágar, which was the last of the Faroese settlements to be connected by road. An isolated place where it sometimes feels as if time has stood still for centuries. Behind the village the mountains rise and in front is the iconic waterfall where the water rushes directly over the cliffs into the sea. Here you enjoy the tranquility and the magnificent view of Tindhólm. Now magnificent hikes are in front of you!

Day 2: Hiking among puffins on Mykines

Today’s trek you do on Mykines, the westernmost point of the Faroe Islands and a paradise for the beautiful puffins that live here. Mykines is completely car-free and there are only a dozen residents here. The excursion begins with a boat trip along the steep and magnificent rock walls before you reach Mykines itself. You have a guided tour here on Mykines, the hike is about 7-8 kilometers in uneven terrain and can be graded anywhere between moderate to hard. After an exciting day, you go back to Vágar and then continue towards. Klaksvík where you rest your legs at your B&B. ( F )

Day 3: Hiking on Svínoy

After breakfast, hop on the ferry from Viðoy to Svínoy. Here awaits a hike at Dragin where the British had a station during World War II. Today, Dragin is a favorite haunt for many of the Faroe Islands’ different bird species. During hiking, you have the opportunity to both see and hear bird species such as heather, antarctic lab, antarctic star, meadow beetle, greylag goose and several gull species. The hike today is slightly easier with its 4-5 kilometers but you walk in uneven terrain and the hike takes about 4 hours. ( F )

Day 4: Panoramic views on Kalsoy

Today you go out to Kalsoy. A 12-kilometer road through the island’s four tunnels connects the island’s four communities. In Trøllanes you meet up with your guide who you will hike with today. You walk towards the lighthouse which is located on the crest of a mountain. During the hike, your guide will tell you about life on Kalsoy – about local traditions and legends. After an hour of hiking you are at the lighthouse and the reward is a wonderful view. Take lots of pictures, both with camera, eyes and heart when you stand and enjoy the sounds of nature and beautiful views. In total, you walk today between 6-10 kilometers in uneven terrain. You walk back to Trøllanes where you can breathe a little before the ferry returns to Klaksvík. From here you drive to the larger island of Eysturoy where you spend the night. ( F )

Day 5: At the top of the Faroe Islands’ highest mountain

You drive to the northern part of Eysturoy where you meet your guide. The hike starts at Eiðisskarð – the mountain pass south of Slættaratindur. A pretty tough hike to the top – but it’s worth it – the view from the highest mountains in the Faroe Islands is absolutely phenomenal with views out over mountains and rolling, green valleys. You walk 5-6 hours in very hilly terrain. After a hard but satisfying day of hiking, you return to Eysturoy for a well-deserved rest. ( F )

Day 6: Walking between giants and witches

Now you leave Eysturoy and drive to Saksun and from here you travel on to Tjørnuvík together with your guide. This area is surrounded by steep mountain sides – most famous is the impressive rock formation such as ‘Kæmpen og Heksen’. During the hike you will see Slættaratindur and Gráfelli, the Faroe Islands’ two highest mountains. On the way from Tjørnuvíksskarð to the village Saksun you have a nice view of the beautiful lagoon and the fjord. The hike today is moderate in relatively uneven terrain, you walk for a total of 5 hours. After the hike, take the car and drive to the capital Tórshavn, for an overnight stay. ( F )

Day 7: The world’s smallest capital or hiking on bus trails

Today you can choose between either going on a discovery trip in Tórshavn or embarking on a final hiking trip. If you stay in the capital, it is a must-see old town where you wander around amidst a maze of streets and alleys, stairs and tarred houses with green grass roofs. A feeling of having stepped back to the Middle Ages that is broken when you see that modern people live and work here. If you choose to hike, we recommend the old bustle trail to Kirkjubøur. The road offers beautiful views of the islands Sandoy, Hestur, Koltur and Vágar. In Kirkjubøur you can see Roykstovan, a 900 year old building. You can also visit the ruins of St. St. Magnus Cathedral and Ólavskyrkan from the year 1111. The hike can be adapted as needed and you can choose to hike between 7-14 kilometers and is on your own without a guide. In the evening, we recommend that you finish at one of Tórshavn’s restaurants, the city is known for its range of restaurants and good food. (F )

Day 8: Departure back to Scandinavia

After fantastic hikes and experiences in the Faroe Islands, you drive back to the airport, return your rental car and take the flight back home again. ( F )

Overnight stays

One night at Vágar at B&B
Two nights at Klaksvik at B&B
Two nights at Eysturoy at B&B
Two nights at Tórshavn at B&B

Trekking Adventure in The Faroe Islands

Backpacking on Borneo, Malaysia

Backpacking on Borneo, Malaysia

A travel suggestion for those who have a limited budget but still want to experience Borneo’s highlights, such as orangutans, jungle trekking through lush rainforest, and sun holidays on a tropical island.

Experience Sabah backpackerstyle. You visit the famous Sepilok rehabilitation center for orangutans. Further on a river safari along the Kinabatangan River and to the Danum Valley with lots of wonderful nature experiences. The adventure ends with a few days of relaxation on the beautiful tropical island of Sepanggar Island.

Day 1: Departure from Scandinavia

Your backpacking adventure – whether you travel as a backpacker or glam packer – begins today with a flight to Kota Kinabalu. There are usually two stopovers on the way, depending on which airline you are traveling with.

Day 2: Arrival in Kota Kinabalu

You will be picked up at the airport and driven to your hostel located in central Kota Kinabalu. The rest of the day is spent on your own, so you can unpack and rest.

Day 3: Kota Kinabalu on your own

You can relax and explore the city today. If you want to go on an excursion, we recommend that you book a day trip to Coral Island, where you can relax, swim and enjoy snorkeling in the crystal clear water. ( F )

Day 4: Transfer to Sepilok

Today you will take the bus to Sandakan and from here on to your lodge in Sepilok’s jungle. (Transportation to the bus station in Kota Kinabalu and from Sandakan to Sepilok is at your own expense.) The afternoon is spent on your own, so you can rent a bike, stroll around, or just relax. ( F )

Day 5: Kinabatangan River

You can spend the morning at the Sepilok Orangutan Center, located a few kilometers from your hostel. Take part in the admirable project, which is about rehabilitating the monkeys. Footbridges have been built so that you can see the orangutans in their natural environment. In the middle of the day, transfer to your lodge in Kinabatangan departs. Upon arrival, a cruise awaits on the river, among exciting birds and wildlife. You are back at your lodge just before dusk, when dinner is served. In the evening, a jungle hike is arranged, so you can see nocturnal animals, birds and insects. ( F , M )

Day 6: Cruise on the Kinabatangan River

The day begins early with a morning cruise on the Kinabatangan River, where you can keep an eye out for exciting animals and birds. Once back in your lodge, breakfast is served and then a jungle walk awaits along with a professional guide. You have the chance to see different kinds of monkeys and can see a glimpse of Borneo’s dwarf elephants. After lunch, an extra trip on the river is arranged. ( F , L , M )

Day 7: Transfer to Danum Valley

Wake up to the sound of gibbon monkeys and the song of the rhinoceros birds. At 06.00 it is time for the morning cruise and you can see even more animals. Back in your lodge, have a good breakfast before heading to the Danum Valley. You are welcomed by a representative from the Danum Valley Field Center (DVFC), which is basically a research center, but where you also receive visitors. After you have been accommodated and eaten lunch, you should meet your guide and plan your days here. In the afternoon, there is a walk in the rainforest that is completely buzzing with life. Maybe you get to see a rhinoceros bird or an orangutan that lives in the area. Back at the center, dinner is served before you go on a night hike with your guide. ( F , L , M )

Day 8: Danum Valley

You need to get up early so that you and your guide can experience when the jungle awakens, from the lookout platforms in the trees. If you prefer to see the sunrise during a trip in a car with four-wheel drive, this can also be arranged in advance (you are responsible for the payment). When you get back to the center, it’s time for breakfast and maybe a walk in the local area, or it’s appropriate with a little relaxation. After lunch, take a dip in the Ulu Segama River, before going on a hike that you plan with your guide. You will return in the late afternoon and enjoy a beautiful sunset. After dinner, it is possible to go on a night hike with a guide. ( F , L , M )

Day 9: Danum Valley

You spend a whole day exploring the area with your guide. Go up to the lookout points in the trees and keep an eye out for gibbon monkeys and orangutans. Depending on your physical condition, a longer hike is also offered, but it is up to the local guide to judge. After dinner there is again the opportunity to go on an evening hike. Accommodation at DVFC in dormitory rooms. ( F , L , M )

Day 10: Transfer to Lahad Datu and flight to Kota Kinabalu

After an early morning walk, breakfast is served and you can finish packing before it’s time to check out and drive to the airport. You fly to Kota Kinabalu where you spend the night. ( F )

Day 11-13: Sepanggar Island

You go by boat to Sepanggar Island and can enjoy the next few days on the beach next to the sea. Relax on the wonderful island with white beaches, turquoise waters and snorkeling among the reefs. You can also rent a kayak or go fishing. Two guided snorkeling trips are included. ( F , L , M )

Day 14: Transfer to the airport

The trip ends today with a transfer to the airport and a flight back to Scandinavia. ( F )

Day 15: Arrival in Scandinavia

Overnight stays

Two nights in Kota Kinabalu in a hostel
One night in a hostel in Sepilok in a dormitory room
Two nights in a lodge on the river Kinabatangan n
Three nights in a hostel in Danum Valley
One night in a hostel in Kota Kinabalu
Two nights in a cottage on Sepanggar Island

Backpacking on Borneo

Go to Bangkok, Angkor Wat, Phuket and Koh Yao

Go to Bangkok, Angkor Wat, Phuket and Koh Yao

Experience the contrast between the metropolitan pulse of Bangkok and the tranquility of the unique temples around Angkor Wat. Cycle around the rural surroundings of Siem Reap before flying south to beautiful Koh Yao and Phuket.

On this trip you can combine one of Asia’s most exciting cities, Bangkok, Angkor Wat – one of the most impressive UNESCO World Heritage Sites and then end your holiday with sun and swimming on both a quiet tropical island and an island with a little more activities. We believe that this is a journey that combines the best of all worlds.

Day 1: Departure from Scandinavia

Today, the journey to Bangkok is with scheduled flights.

Day 2: Arrival in Bangkok

When you arrive in Bangkok, a driver is ready to drive you to your guesthouse. New Road Guest House is very centrally located and has a nice and homely atmosphere. In the lobby there is a service center that is happy to assist with travel tips and practical questions. The rest of the day you can rest after the trip or discover Bangkok. We have lots of suggestions for great experiences if you need inspiration. If you want to eat near your guesthouse, we recommend the restaurant next door, Harmonique.

Day 3-4: On your own in Bangkok:

You have all day to explore Bangkok on your own. Go on a journey of discovery in the exciting city where lots of experiences await. If you need suggestions for activities, we recommend, among other things, a bike ride behind the city’s facade or exciting trainspotting in Mahachai. The day offers an exciting excursion from the hectic city life in Bangkok to the lively and green countryside where you can experience the local everyday life. ( F )

Day 5: By plane to Siem Reap

You take yourself out to the airport and your flight to Cambodia. You will be picked up at the airport in Siem Reap and driven to your cozy hotel, where you can spend the day relaxing by the pool or taking a stroll to the local market. ( F )

Day 6: Angkor Wat

The trip departs by tuk tuk early in the morning, so you can watch the sunrise at the temples. The first stop is at Srah Sarong or “Kings Bath”, where you can watch the sun rise over the water and the temples. Then you can walk across the road and be one of the first to visit the jungle temple of Ta Phrom just as they open for the day. The archeological park around Angkor is one of the most important sights in Southeast Asia. It stretches over 400 km2 and contains ruins from the various capitals of the Khmer Empire from the 800s to the 14th century. Today you get to see the area highlights. After Ta Phrom you will visit the southern part of Angkor Thom where you can follow a path through the jungle to a hidden temple. If you have brought breakfast, it is perfect to eat it (ask the hotel staff to pack a lunch box for you). You will also visit Bayon, Baphoun, Terrace of Elephants and Leper King temples. When it suits you, you can take a break for lunch and maybe rest for a while, before moving on to Angkor Wat – the most famous building from the Khmer era. The day ends with an unforgettable sunset over the temple area. (F )

Day 7: Experience everyday life around Siem Reap by bike

Today you will cycle through the area around Siem Reap and take part in preparing a meal that you can donate to the local monks. The Buddhist monks live far from their families and are not allowed to have regular jobs. Therefore, they are completely dependent on the generosity of the local population. You prepare the food together with a local chef and pack it so that it is ready to donate to the monks. Once you have given the food to the monks, you can talk to them about Buddhism and their way of life. After lunch, cycle back to the hotel. ( F , L )

Day 8: Flight to Phuket

You can ask the hotel to book a taxi for you that will take you to the airport. When you arrive, you will be picked up at the airport and given a ride to the beautiful island of Koh Yao Yai, where you can enjoy life on a real paradise island for the next few days. ( F )

Day 9-11: Koh Yao Yai

If you feel like a bit of speed and fan during the days on Koh Yao Yai, you can snorkel in one of the most beautiful places in the area, rent a kayak and explore the mangroves or maybe take a mountain bike ride. You can also enjoy the tranquility and relax with a good book, pamper yourself in the hotel’s spa or take a dip in the hotel’s beautiful infinity pool. NOTE: due to low tide outside the hotel, the beach is not the best for swimming. ( F )

Day 12: By boat to Phuket

After a couple of days of peace and quiet, the journey continues towards the pulse of Phuket. Here you live on the quiet Bantao Beach, where there are plenty of small cozy restaurants and bars. ( F )

Day 13-14: On your own on Phuket

You can go for a walk on the beach, test your talents on a paddleboard or go to one of the more visited beaches and do some shopping. We recommend that you have dinner at Bliss Beach Club or that you rent a scooter / take a taxi and enjoy a drink at sunset in the beautiful Sri Panwas bar Baba Nest which is located on the roof. ( F )

Day 15: Return from Phuket

Today is the last day of the holiday, but you still have time for one last dip in the sea before you are picked up at the hotel and go to the flight that will take you home to Scandinavia again. ( F )

Day 16: Arrival in Scandinavia

Overnight stays

Three nights at guesthouse in Bangkok
Three nights at boutique hotel in Siem Reap
Four nights in villa on Koh Yao
Three nights at resort in Phuket

Go to Bangkok, Angkor Wat, Phuket and Koh Yao

Suriname Overivew

Suriname Overivew


The vegetation is characterized by the equatorial forest, rich in precious essences (Lucuma mammosa, Lecythis ollaria, Copaifera bracteata, Bombax ceiba or Kapok etc.) and which covers almost the entire territory; a strip of mangroves borders the coast and, in the less humid areas, there are savannah areas. Over 90% of the country’s surface is still occupied by forest, inhabited by large mammals such as tapir, jaguar, monkeys, giant armadillo and wild pigs; among the reptiles there are the iguana, the caiman and among the amphibians an endemic species of dendrobat, the Dendrobates azureus, while very varied is the avifauna with eagles, cocks of the rocks, parrots, hummingbirds, ibises and herons. The major environmental problems of the country are linked to the pollution of the rivers due to toxic discharges from the mining industries and to the deforestation caused by the exploitation of timber for export. 13.2% of the territory is subject to protection by the authorities; the protected areas include the Central Suriname Nature Reserve, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000 and which encompasses a vast primary ecosystem, the Brownsberg Nature Park, created in 1969 for the purpose of protection, research and education and various reserves natural. Visit baglib for Suriname as a tourist country.


Agriculture is practiced intensively on the small portion of the cultivated area (less than 1% of the national territory). In general, the primary sector contributes to the formation of GDP for 9.9% and employs 7% of the active population. Rice cultivation clearly prevails, which covers internal needs and allows for a certain export. The cultivation of oil palm follows in importance; the country is also self-sufficient for various other foodstuffs, such as sugar (considerable quantities of rum are obtained from the by-products of sugar), citrus fruits (especially oranges, grapefruits), bananas and coffee; a minor role are played by cocoa, coconut palm and peanuts. § As mentioned, Suriname is in practice an immense forest, very rich in precious essences that is not adequately exploited for commercial purposes due above all to the lack of communication routes and targeted investments. § Breeding is of little importance, as it lacks suitable climatic and environmental conditions; fairly numerous are only the poultry. § Fishing is of greater importance, which helps to integrate the food resources of the population and to increase exports (in particular to the USA); shellfish.


The ethnic mosaic at the base of today’s Surinamese society constitutes, even within the variegated Caribbean world, a peculiarity, whose features also dominate the cultural landscape of the country. In fact, in addition to the synthesis between indigenous (Amerindian) and European (mainly Dutch) elements, the contribution linked to the immigration of African and Oriental workers was considerable. Religion, language (Dutch is accompanied by several Creole dialects), cuisine, music (the typical genres of the Caribbean mix with jazz and the rhythms of Black Africa) and architecture (both civil and religious) they bring ample examples of such a melting pot of traditions. One of the most important folkloric moments is the Cultural parade in which all ethnic groups parade. In the capital there are mosques, synagogues, churches, and the beauty of Paramaribo is also recognized by UNESCO which has included the historic center among the world heritage sites (2002). Although many artists have preferred overseas, local art and crafts have kept their roots alive in engravings, sculptures and everyday artefacts. Literature has a group of local artists whose works range from prose to poetry to children’s literature.


Nepal Arts and Traditions

Nepal Arts and Traditions


According to campingship, Nepal is a country located in Asia. The most notable expression of the custom in Nepal can be found in the spirit that characterizes the participation of the residents in popular festivals. The scanning of the recurrences is structured on the Nepalese calendar, whose starting point is the Indian calendar Bikram Sambat, and which begins with the month of Baishakh (New Year roughly corresponds to April 13-14 on the Gregorian calendar). In these celebrations, which, adding up the religious, historical-legendary, agricultural, seasonal or regional ones, come to form a number almost equal to the days of an entire calendar, everything is homage to tradition: classic cuisine is found here, more typical clothing, the music and dances of the origins, the secular rites that have remained intact. Among the many we remember the Nawabarsha (the Nepalese New Year), the Buddha Jayanty (the birth of Buddha), the Dashain (the longest, 15 days, and choreographic of the appointments, dedicated to Durga, the universal mother goddess), the Tihar (5 days dedicated to Yama, the god of death). To these parties are added the private or family anniversaries, with their set of practices and peculiarities with more or less colorful and folkloric tones, weddings, births, funerals. The cultural heterogeneity of Nepal also characterizes other areas of lifestyle, such as nutrition: in fact, only some dishes are the same throughout the country (dal, lentil soup, bhat, rice, tarkari, curry vegetables). Finally, a distinctive trait of Nepalese history and culture is the great importance attributed to the care of the mind, concretized in the wide variety of meditative arts, also of religious origin, developed here. From yoga to meditation to ayurveda, the “science of life”, these attitudes, rather than practical, still mark the real difference between the East and the West of the world.


Appendix of Indian civilization, the Nepalese artistic culture assimilated from this stylistic components (Maurya, Gupta and Pāla art) to feed its own traditions and to develop an irradiation activity towards the Tibetan area that configures it as a link between Indian art , the Tibetan one and the Chinese one from the Yüan period (XIII-XIV century). Fundamental vehicles of these complex encounters were Hinduism and above all Tantric Buddhism, which was introduced in Tibet around the century. VII-VIII, from which the most singular manifestations of genuine Nepalese art derive. Beyond the most striking and immediate figurative achievements of plastic and pictorial art originating from the iconographic suggestion of the pantheon Tantric with its crowded repertoire of terrifying images of multi-headed and multi-armed divinities, the originality of Nepalese art is documented above all by the architecture of its religious monuments and by the wooden sculpture that embellishes and integrates their structures through decoration of architraves, pediments and cornices inspired by stylized shapes and motifs from the Indian ornamental repertoire. The Nepalese plastic tradition was formed on the contributions of the classical art of India Gupta (5th-6th century), then fed by that of the Pāla-Sena tradition, which increased the development of bronzework, which sometimes exceeds the same stone sculpture, so much so that Nepalese bronzers are documented active in the century. XIII both in Mongolia and in China, as well as in Tibet. Nepalese painters were also active here, Moghūl and rājpūt (17th-18th centuries). The two most ancient, important and historically documented epochs of Nepalese art are those of the Licchavi dynasty (c. IV-VII century), during which a typically indigenous art and architecture originated and developed, and of the Malla dynasty, whose history and artistic documentation cover, after a parenthesis of over five centuries, the period from the century. XI to the century. XIV, according to the genealogy of the Malla kings handed down to us by the inscriptions of the time found by G. Tucci in Dullu in the western part of Nepal, rich in monuments and works of art of this dynasty. The civil architecture of ancient Nepal adopted the building typology of the sanctuaries and monastic complexes of Buddhism, with large proportions and a harmonious compositional scheme consisting of the main temple and a constellation of minor temples, stūpa and other small buildings (chapels, various monuments), as well as buildings intended for housing the monastic community. War destruction and natural disasters caused serious destruction of the Nepalese artistic heritage, especially in the century. XIV. Much of it was rebuilt in the following century after the period of great artistic flourishing that took place under the reign of the seventh ruler Malla Jayastithi (1382-95). Today the major existing artistic monuments are found in the cities that were the seat of distinct Nepalese kingdoms, namely those of Bhadgaon, Lalita-Pāttana (Lalitpur) and Kathmandu, in addition to the numerous shrines and reliquaries that arise in various other locations. The most characteristic (in Svayambhūnātha, Bodhinātha, Lalitpur, Kīrtipur) reproduce the ancient mound shapes of the examples of the Maurya periodand they show paintings on the cubic area, the so-called harmikā, four pairs of stylized eyes, oriented towards the four cardinal points, protective image of the Vairocana Buddha.

Nepal Arts

Koguryŏ Tombs (World Heritage)

Koguryŏ Tombs (World Heritage)

The Koguryŏ dynasty ruled from 37 BC. BC to 688 AD large areas of northern China and the northern half of the Korean peninsula. In the middle of the 5th century, Pyongyang became the capital of this empire, which was subjugated by the Silla Empire in 688. The tomb complex near Pyongyang is of great importance for research into the Koguryŏ culture, as it contains wall paintings.

Koguryŏ Tombs: Facts

Official title: Koguryŏ tombs
Cultural monument: Tombs near Pyongyang and Namp’o with wall paintings depicting everyday scenes from the Koguryŏ culture, one of the “Three Kingdoms” of early Korean times; The climax of their reign from 277 BC. Until 688 in parts of northern China and in the northern half of the Korean peninsula; only 90 of the 10,000 Koguryŏ tombs with wall paintings discovered so far in China and Korea; almost half at this site
Continent: Asia
Country: North Korea
Location: Pyongyang and the surrounding area
Appointment: 2004
Meaning: Unique evidence of an Asian culture

The cradle of Korean culture

From 37 BC From BC to AD 668, the kingdom of Koguryŏ was one of the most important powers in East Asia. In its heyday, it stretched from Manchuria to what is now North Korea and northern South Korea. The only relics of this culture are numerous burial mounds over 1500 years old in which kings, members of the royal family and nobles were buried. In total, around 10,000 of these graves are known in North Korea and China, and new grave sites are still being discovered. In 90 of them there are often excellently preserved murals, which give a unique insight into the culture of Koguryŏ. For this reason, UNESCO has included 30 graves on North Korean soil – group and individual graves – in its list of world cultural heritage.

The legendary forefather of Koguryŏ is King Dongmyeong (58 BC – 19 BC), the son of heaven and the goddess of water – as the Korean chronicle Samguk Sagi from 1145 writes. He founded an empire that would last for 700 years. According to youremailverifier, North Korea still sees itself today in the tradition of Koguryŏ: as a fighting empire with strong armed forces that solves its problems itself and takes its fate into its own hands. Communist leaders like the “Eternal President” Kim Il Sung (1912–1994) like to portray themselves as the legitimate successors and heirs of Dongmyeong.

The Koguryŏ empire was tightly organized. The king was at the head of a feudal society in which the military held an important position. The people were aggressive and were often attacked – by the Chinese in the north and the kingdoms of the Silla and Baekje in the south. 145 disputes are historically documented. Fortified fortifications existed at the strategically important points, a total of around 200 in number. 50,000 soldiers were permanently available to the king, but if necessary the army could be increased to up to 200,000 men. The fighting was done with bows and arrows, spears and catapults.

In ancient Korea, belief in the afterlife was an integral part of the culture. The soul was considered immortal and lived on even after death. For this reason, the tombs were furnished like houses. Frescoes and paintings adorned the walls of the graves and showed the souls what their future life looked like. These colorful grave frescoes depict scenes from everyday life and from mythology. They provide information on what architecture, food culture and clothing, indeed everyday life, looked like in ancient Korea, which was shaped by Confucianism and Buddhism. They show that even then there was a lively trade and cultural exchange with southern China, Japan, Central Asia and Siberia, for which the Taedong-gang river was used as a traffic artery. And the frescoes testify to the numerous battles

Two graves stand out from the large number of barrows: In 1949 the largest barrow to date, the tomb of Anak, was discovered. The murals show a man and a woman dressed in Chinese style – presumably the people who were buried there. This grave is one of the few that bears an inscription that dates it to the year 357. The name of its owner is given as Dong Shou. The Kangso tomb is located near Pyongyang. The 12 meter high hill is one of the best preserved graves of the Koguryŏ era. Many of the mysterious religious frescoes, which were applied directly to the polished stone wall, appear as if freshly painted. Four mythological deities – dragon, phoenix, turtle and snake – guard the deceased and are supposed to ensure that he can enjoy his life in peace in the hereafter. The deceased also received rich grave goods with them on their way, but the graves were plundered over time, so that today only the paintings and a few old writings give an insight into life in the Koguryŏ empire. A true-to-scale reconstruction of a barrow from the region can be seen in the Pyongyang Historical Museum – but who was buried there is unclear.

Typical barrows of the Koguryŏ empire have also been found in China. In fact, parts of the former Koguryŏ empire are now Chinese territory. Since the early 1990s, the Koguryŏ culture has therefore also been claimed by China as part of its history. In 2004 a corresponding World Heritage Site was named: The “capitals and tombs of the Koguryŏ era” include the remains of the three Chinese cities of Wunu, Guonei and Wandu as well as 40 tumuli.

Koguryŏ Tombs (World Heritage)

Places to Visit in Bordeaux, France

Places to Visit in Bordeaux, France

Churches or sacred institutions

Cathédrale St. André
The cathedral was inaugurated by Pope Urban II in 1096 and comes close to the enormous dimensions of Notre Dame in Paris. The cathedral in Romanesque-Gothic style has a separate bell tower, which offers a beautiful view.
The preserved baroque organ of the cathedral is also worth a detour.
Address: Place Pey-Berland

Eglise St. Michel

The Eglise St. Michel has a 114 meter high bell tower and was built between the 15th and 16th centuries. There is a daily flea market around the church.
Address: Place Canteloup

Saint Seurin

Saint Seurin dates from the 13th and 14th centuries. However, it did not get its current garb in 1831. However, a figure portal on the south side of the church still dates from the original days.
The vestibule from the previous building from the 11th century is even older than this. Reliquaries and sarcophagi from the 6th and 7th centuries can still be seen in the crypt.
Address: Rue Rod. Péreire


Stade Chaban-Delmas (Parc de Lescure)
The Stade Chaban-Delmas (Parc de Lescure) was inaugurated in 1924 and is constantly updated, so that today there is space for up to 35,200 people, for example when the local soccer team GB plays here.
Address: Place Johnston

Zoological Garden

Zoo de Bordeaux Pessac
The Zoo de Bordeaux Pessac was bought by Wild Nature Holding in 2004 and was subsequently revised and redesigned.
3, avenue du Transvaal
33600 PESSAC


Jardin Public
The Jardin Public was laid out in 1746. There is a nice children’s playground on the island (Ile des enfants) on the lake in the park. Also in the park are the species-rich Bordeaux Botanical Garden and the natural history museum.
Address: Cours de Verdun

Rivers and lakes

The city’s river is the Garonne, which flows through the city from north to south. It is spanned by five bridges within Bordeaux.

Bordeaux-Lac Bordeaux-Lac can be found on both sides of the northern ring road. The 160 hectare lake is the center of a complex that also includes the trade fair, a congress center, a cycling track and an amusement park.


The city’s port is the sixth most important port in France, but the most important wine export port in the world. The city’s historic harbors lost their importance when sailing on the Gironde was no longer possible due to the increasing draft of the ships.


The village of St. Emilion is 35 km east of Bordeaux . It is widely known for its 14th-century cloister of the Eglise Collégiale. The two towers Tour du Roy and Clocher Monolithe should also be visited here for a panoramic view, as well as the rock church Eglise Monolithe with the grotto and the catacombs. St. Emilion is even more famous for its excellent wines. Wine lovers should definitely not miss out on a few wine tastings.

The Médoc wine-growing region to the south and west of the Gironde covers 13,500 hectares. Wine enthusiasts are recommended to visit Château Mouton-Rothschild near Pauillac, which has collections and the wine store open to visitors.

The fortified castle of Château de la Brède is located around 20 km south of Bordeaux. It dates from the 14th century. Montesquieu was born here in 1689. A collection here commemorates the great writer and state theorist.


Atlantic coast
The Atlantic coast with its wonderful wide and white beaches is around 50 km (as the crow flies) from Bordeaux

The municipality of Arcachon with around 10,000 residents is located around 50 km (as the crow flies) southwest of Bordeaux.
The place is famous for its nearby dune “Dune du Pilat”, which has a height of about 110 m, a length of 2.7 km and a width at its base of about 500 m.

Traffic in the city

Since 2004 a modern tram has been running on three lines in the city of Bordeaux according to relationshipsplus. Most of the railway is supplied with an underground power supply. Internet:

Bordeaux has 72 bus routes that are used during the day, 10 express routes and 12 routes that are operated by the night bus.

Taxis There are
around 400 taxis in Bordeaux. They can be called, stopped or boarded at one of the city’s numerous stations.

The bicycle path network in Bordeaux “intra muros” (within the city walls) is relatively well developed with cycle paths, not last. as the bus routes are also available to cyclists.

Places to Visit in Bordeaux, France

Parks and Cemetery in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Parks and Cemetery in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Buenos Aires Botanical Garden
The Buenos Aires Botanical Garden (Jardín Botánico Carlos Thays de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires) is a public garden located in the Palermo district, in the north of the city. It is bordered by Avenida Santa Fe, Avenida Las Heras and Calle República Árabe Siria. According to Abbreviationfinder, Buenos Aires is often abbreviated as BA.
The garden forms a connected recreational area with the zoological garden, the Parque Tres de Febrero and the Japanese garden. It covers an area of ​​around 70,000 m² and is home to around 5,000 types of plants as well as a number of sculptures, monuments and five greenhouses.
The garden was designed by the Franco-Argentine landscape architect Carlos Thays (1849-1934) and opened on September 7, 1898.
The garden is divided into the following three zones:
– Roman garden The Roman garden houses trees that grew in the garden of the hobby botanist and Senator Pliny the Younger (61 AD-113) in the garden of his villa in the Apennines, so Cypresses, poplars and laurel trees.
– French garden The French garden is laid out in the style of the 17th and 18th centuries, the time of absolutism.
– Oriental garden The oriental garden is home to plants from Asia – including gingko trees, from Oceania, as well as acacias, eucalyptus and casuarina and European plants such as oak and hazelnut and plants from Africa, including palm trees.
In addition, numerous plants from North and South America grow here, such as sequoias and foil silk trees and there is an extensive collection of native vegetation.
In 1996 the Botanical Garden was added to the list of National Monuments of Argentina.

Parque Centenario
The freely accessible public park is located in the Caballito district on Avenida Patricias Argentinas.
The park was laid out in memory of the May Revolution of 1810 on an area of ​​around 10 hectares and opened in 1910, 100 years later – hence the name.
The plans for the park came from the Franco-Argentine landscape architect Carlos Thays (1849-1934). Nowadays it is used as a sports and leisure park, so there is a skate area, play areas for children and of course lots of green areas.
A 2,000 m² lake, which was created later, is ideal for walking and jogging. The park’s amphitheater was inaugurated in 1951 by President Juan Perón (1895-1974), but it burned down in 1955.
As part of a general renovation of the park, it was rebuilt in 2009.
On the weekends there are many small market stalls in the park that sell books and handicrafts, among other things. In addition, the natural science Museo de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia has its seat at the park. Parque de 3 de Febrero The extensive park in the Palermo district was built in 1890. Various smaller and larger gardens invite you to relax. It is also known as “Parque Palermo”. Jardín Japonés In the Asian-looking park there are several ponds, bridges and waterfalls. Original Japanese ornamental fish swim in the largest lake in the park.

Parque Natural y Reserva Ecológico
This approximately 350 hectare nature reserve on the Río de la Plata consists of meadows, scrub and forest. You can also find lagoons and wetlands here.
Around 250 species of birds, 9 species of amphibians, 23 species of reptiles and 10 species of mammals live here. Around 50 species of butterflies were also counted.
The city’s residents like to use the park as a local recreation and sports facility.
At the south entrance at the Fuente Nereidas fountain, which was designed by Lola Mora, you can borrow bicicletas, for example, to ride the 8 km circular path through the park.
The impressive view of the skyline of Buenos Aires is also worth mentioning.
Avenida Tristán Achával Rodríguez 1550

Tierra Santa
Tierra Santa (Holy Land) is a religious theme park in the style of a religious Disney park in the middle of Buenos Aires. On Good Friday and Easter, the crucifixion and resurrection story is presented by Jesus.
The Last Supper, the Way of the Cross, the crucifixion of Jesus or the burning of Judas are staged.
There are also thousands of visitors to the park. The whole thing looks pretty kitschy to Central Europeans, but the performances have a long tradition in Argentina and are considered religious highlights.
On “normal” days the park seems rather calm and a larger than life Jesus figure rises from a hill, turns in a circle and disappears again.
It is interesting that Muslim or Jewish traditions are also cultivated here. So the local Jews can deposit their wish lists in the cracks of a wailing wall – as in Jerusalem – which are brought to Jerusalem once a year.
Some of the employees are disguised as Franciscan monks or as Romans.
Av. Costanera Rafael Obligado

La Recoleta Cemetery
The huge La Recoleta Cemetery (Cementerio de la Recoleta) is located in the Recoleta district of Buenos Aires. The cemetery was opened in 1822. Many of the “rich and famous” of the city and Argentina were buried on it.
Many of the 7,000 mausoleums, most of which are adorned with marble figures and elaborate domes, appear like small palaces.
The most visited tomb is that of Eva (Evita) Perón (1919-1952), the second wife of President Juan Perón (1895-1974).
Right next to the entrance to the cemetery is the Bisilica del Pilar from 1732. Private photography is permitted.

Parks and Cemetery in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Beijing Festivals and Events

Beijing Festivals and Events

Beijing: Known People

You can find numerous people from Beijing, including all the emperors who ruled the empire, at Goruma under the heading “Personalities of China” under the following link.
In order to avoid double entries, only relatively few people are shown at this point

Aisin Gioro Pu Yi (1906-1967)
Born in Beijing, he was the last emperor of the Chinese Empire. He ruled from 1908 to 1912. Under communist rule he was subjected to intensive re-education.

Cíxí (1835-1908)
The Dowager Empress Cíxí was one of Xianfeng’s concubines, the Manchu Emperor, who ruled from 1851-1861. This made her one of the most influential women of the imperial era.

Faye Wong (born 1969)
Faye Wong is a Chinese actress and singer, also known as Wang Fei, who has appeared in various film productions. Born in Beijing, she is considered one of the most popular Asian artists.

Ivan Desny (1922-2002)
The French-German actor was born as Ivan Nikolai Desnitzky in Beijing. He made various films, including “Touch me not” from 1974. Desny died in Switzerland at the age of 79.

Jet Li (born 1963)
Jet Li was born in Beijing in 1963 and gained fame as a martial arts master and as an actor.

Lao She (1899-1966)
This famous Chinese writer was born on February 3, 1899 as Shu Quìngchun in Beijing.

Shan Sa (born 1972)
This Sino-French writer was born in Beijing and was awarded first prize in the national Chinese poetry competition very early on. But after the bloody events of 1989 on Tiananmen Square, she emigrated to France.

Qiánlóng (1711-1799)
The fourth Chinese emperor (Quing dynasty), actually named Aisin Gioro Hóngli, was born in Beijing and died there. His reign was from 1735 to 1796, but actually until 1799.

Xie Jun (born 1970) Xie Jun was born
in Beijing in 1970 and is a Chinese chess player and world champion. In addition to the world champion title, she also won several other titles (national champion etc.) and was listed as the third best chess player on the international world rankings in 2005.

Zhang Ziyi (born 1979)
Born in Beijing, Zhang Ziyi, who is considered one of the most famous young talents in China, is one of the most famous Chinese actresses.

Beijing: special features, festivals and events

Peculiarities of the city

Beijing Opera (Jingju)
The famous Beijing opera (Jingju), a particular branch of Chinese opera, in which various artistic styles (dance, martial arts, singing, pantomime, acrobatics, etc.) are mixed, taken up in the form of historical themes and linked with mythology, is considered a great specialty of Beijing become. The frugal equipment and the deep symbolism in the representation are characteristic. The language in which it is performed is difficult to understand today because it is an old dialect that is no longer spoken today. Performances are therefore mostly given with English or subtitles in Mandarin. The performances last about 90 minutes. Considered the highest form of Chinese culture, the Beijing Opera is not limited to the capital, but is performed throughout the country.

Beijing Festivals and Events

Culinary diversity
According to relationshipsplus, the second specialty of Beijing is the enormous culinary diversity of the city. All the world’s kitchens are represented here. But Beijing itself also has a long and distinct tradition of cooking, the best-known representatives of which are Beijing duck (Beijing Kaoya), a delicacy made from pieces of chicken and onions wrapped in pancakes and previously pickled in plum sauce, and the Mongolian hot pot (huoguo). The latter is a broth made with sliced ​​mutton, cabbage, and noodles.

Chinese New Year
or Spring Festival
(between Jan 20 and Feb 21)

This is one of the most important and popular family celebrations in all of China and is based on the Chinese traditional peasant calendar. The festival is between January 20th and February 21st. It will be rung in with the new moon in the first month of the new year. Although the Gregorian calendar is now officially used in China, the New Year is still celebrated according to the lunar calendar and in the traditional way. For the people of Beijing (and of course all of China) there are three days off and the celebrations last until the 15th day of the New Year. There are also fireworks in the city, gongs and drums are struck, lion dances are performed, and people walk on stilts. There are also traditional temple markets where you can enjoy various performances.

International Women’s Day (March 8th)

On March 8th, Beijing celebrates International Women’s Day. In general, women get half a day off on this day, but this is regulated differently from province to province and is not required by law.

International Children’s Day (June 1st)

This holiday is especially loved by the young Chinese because all children under the age of thirteen have no school on this day. Parents apply for vacation and do something with their children. Many also officially have a day off. Alternatively, the schools organize visits to the cinema on this day, and families and children can be seen in the parks and cafes all over the city.

Youth Day (May 4th)

This day is celebrated in memory of the May 4th Movement in 1919. This movement were student protest marches that broke out because of the decision of the Versailles Conference after the First World War, as a result of which the rights of the German Empire in China were transferred to Japan.

Chinese Communist Party

Founding Day (July 1st) July 1st is not an official holiday. However, on that day, numerous television programs commemorate the founding of the Chinese Communist Party.

Establishment of the People’s Republic of China (October 1st)

Since there are 5 days of vacation on October 1st, the public holidays for the founding of the People’s Republic are also days with very heavy travel activity. On these days, many Chinese are out to visit their families. The city’s means of transport are then even more crowded than ever and should be avoided on this day.

Beijing: Tourist Offices

Tourist offices

Beijing Tourist Information Center
Capital Airport
Email: [email protected]

Tourist Information Center
Beijing Luyou Zixun Fuwu Zhongxin
City: Chaoyang
Email: [email protected]

China International Travel Service (CITS

103 Fuxingmennei Dajie <
Tel: 6601 1122
Tourist hotline: 6513 0828, 6831 4971

Venezuela Travel Warning

Venezuela Travel Warning

According to youremailverifier, the Venezuelan government declared a state of emergency on the entire country on May 13, 2016. Violent clashes broke out during political protests. Given this current situation and the ongoing economic and supply shortages in the country, non-urgent travel to Venezuela is not recommended.

The following tourist destinations are excluded from this if they are visited as part of organized trips: Los Roques, Roraima, Canaima National Park, Isla Margarita and the Amacuro Delta. It should be noted that despite the start of the rainy season, there are still failures in the supply of drinking water and electricity throughout the country. As far as drinking water is available, it is not provided in the quality that is usual in Germany. This also leads to restrictions in the health and tourism sector. The medical care situation in Venezuela is deteriorating. Adequate treatment of emergencies in particular – e.g. in the course of traffic accidents – is not guaranteed everywhere and at all times.

Due to the deteriorating economic and supply situation, there are more and more demonstrations, some of which are announced and some of which arise spontaneously, especially in the cities. Firearms have also been used repeatedly in these in the past. Travelers are advised to pay close attention and are strongly advised to stay away from demonstrations and large crowds.

With regard to the widespread, high level of violent crime, to which foreigners also repeatedly fall victim, special care is required.

Germans who are in the country and have not yet entered the embassy list of Germans are advised to register electronically at External Link, opens in a new windowhttp: // in order to prevent the security situation from deteriorating to be centrally accessible. This service can also be used by German citizens who only stay in the country for a short period of time.

Country-specific safety information


It is strongly recommended that you stay away from crowds and demonstrations and that you follow media coverage and this travel advice regularly and carefully.

Border area with Colombia

Travel to the border area with Colombia is not recommended. In the areas along the Colombian border, particularly in the Venezuelan states of Amazonas, Apure, Barinas, Táchira and Zulia, there is still an increased risk of kidnappings and other violent crimes as a result of the Colombian internal conflict.

We also advise against leaving the country by land to and from Colombia. Temporary closings of the border with Colombia can be ordered at short notice at any time. Experience shows that border closings sometimes result in extremely long waiting times.

Holiday Island Margarita On the Holiday Island Margarita there is a risk of armed robbery, also in hotel complexes and during accompanied and organized group excursions. The center of Porlamar should be avoided especially after dark.

Piracy Sailors should note that robberies on anchored ships or ships close to the coast or cases of piracy along the Venezuelan coast occur sporadically and take appropriate measures (caution with spontaneous guests on board, self-protection at night).


The high crime rate in Venezuela poses a significant risk to both individual and group travelers. Kidnappings to extort money and armed attacks have increased. Germans were also affected. Street crime in large Venezuelan cities, especially Caracas, remains high. Violent crime and assaults can also be expected outside of the cities, for example on country roads.

In the past, during controls by uniformed officers (police, military) in the city, during roadside checks and even at the airport, travelers were robbed by uniformed controllers or forced to pay or exchange money. If possible, travelers should only hand over a copy of their passport and not the original document during such checks.

It is strongly advised to observe the following guidelines:

  • Driving in the dark should be avoided for safety reasons. Especially on the highway between the airport and Caracas, there were several attacks during the dark. Passengers are therefore generally advised not to use this route at night.
  • Travelers should not hitchhike or camp.
  • On excursions without a local tour guide, travelers should find out exactly which places are absolutely to be avoided (e.g. poor areas, the so-called “barrios”).
  • On arrival at Caracas Airport, there have been attacks in the past involving uniforms and taxi drivers. In the arrival hall of the airport, travelers should therefore in particular not accept transport offers from alleged taxi drivers or persons who appear to be authorized, but should only use the official airport taxis that are waiting in front of the arrival hall.
  • When using taxis and buses, you should only choose vehicles in good technical condition that are in radio communication with their company headquarters. Taxis or minibuses can also be used, as recommended by the hotel. There is a high risk of robbery when using supposedly cheaper taxis and buses.
  • If, despite all precautionary measures, an armed attack does occur, it is recommended that you do not resist.
  • Money should only be exchanged at the designated counters.
  • Valuable objects or large amounts of money should not be carried; this also applies to the journey to and stay at the airport on departure.

Greater caution is advisable when using credit / debit cards, as there are always cases of fraudulent debits.

Venezuela Travel Warning

Ethiopia Travel Warning

Ethiopia Travel Warning

At the beginning of January 2017, a hand grenade exploded in front of the Grand Hotel in Bahir Dar and a week later in the entrance area of the Etasal Hotel in Gondar. In the latter incident, one person died and others were injured.

According to youremailverifier, the Ethiopian government declared a state of emergency on October 8, 2016. This was preceded by mass demonstrations and sometimes violent protests against the Ethiopian government, mostly in the Oromia and Amhara regions. It is currently not advisable to go on holiday to the Oromia and Amhara regions away from the main routes. Traveling on the main routes (Bahir Dar, Gondar, Lalibela, Dire Dawa, Arba Minch) is currently possible without any problems.

Details of the state of emergency were announced on Ethiopian TV on October 15, 2016. In particular, all protest activities were prohibited.

Travelers are advised to register online in the German list of the embassy in Addis Ababa (ELEFAND) so that the embassy – if necessary – can contact you quickly in crises and other exceptional situations: External link, opens in a new windowhttp: //elefand.diplo. de

The sending of electronic messages (SMS), messages via social networks and e-mails may be temporarily restricted. In large parts of the country, the mobile Internet has been switched off for weeks. It is strongly recommended that you avoid any communication with critical and political statements.

Travelers should also always have several copies of their passport with them. Every landlord and car rental company must provide the authorities with data on their tenants and customers.

The protests are also expressed in roadblocks. In some cases, vehicles outside of Addis Ababa were pelted with stones, including deaths and injuries. Various companies, including foreign ones, were looted or set on fire, including in individual cases tourist accommodations (lodges). The internet and mobile network are interrupted regularly, sometimes for days.

Travelers are advised to stay away from the locations of the clashes, avoid crowds and, if necessary, go to protected areas. If a demonstration has been announced, the route or the whereabouts should be adjusted accordingly.

Country-specific safety information

Domestic situation

The imposition of the state of emergency on October 8th, 2016 has been preceded by protests since autumn 2015, which sparked, among other things, the “Urban Development Plan Addis Ababa”. Many Oromos fear further land grabbing in the event of insufficient compensation Aggravated again in 2016 and extended to the Amharen region. The cities of Bahir Dar and Gondar, which are popular with tourists, were also affected in July. Since then there have been repeated violent clashes between security forces and protesters, leaving numerous dead and injured.

Due to the state of emergency, the provincial administrations are deprived of their powers to maintain public safety and order and are centralized to the Ethiopian federal government. This enables them to react more quickly to future unrest. Details of the implementation of the state of emergency are not yet known.

Road blockades by demonstrators, especially in the immediate vicinity of the capital Addis Ababa, and the cordoning off of areas by the security forces, often restrict road traffic in the region. Countermeasures by the police during protest actions, such as evictions and mass arrests, can also endanger uninvolved persons. Anyone who tries to disregard the barriers must expect to be pelted with stones. Such incidents have already resulted in deaths and injuries.

There are frequent incidents in the outskirts of the country. In the Somali region (Ogaden) in the east, the Ethiopian military carries out armed operations against members of the ONLF (see also Traveling overland).

In the border area with Somalia, due to possible military actions against fighters of the Islamist terrorist organization al-Shabaab, larger troop movements can also be expected across borders.

In the Gambella region there was a tribal-politically motivated attack on villages near the city of Gambella from South Sudan in mid-April 2016, in which a large number of Ethiopians were killed and numerous children were kidnapped. Some of the children were returned in mid-May. Less than a week after the attack, employees of an aid organization were attacked and killed by refugees after a vehicle from this organization caused the deaths of two refugee girls in a traffic accident. In the meantime, the situation has calmed down due to the high presence of government troops and security forces. However, it is not advisable to travel to the region that is not necessary. The border area with South Sudan should be avoided.

When traveling in the South Omo Zone, especially away from the tourist routes, it is strongly recommended to inform yourself about the current security situation with the local authorities immediately before starting your journey. Due to an armed attack on a European tour group on November 7th, 2016, it is recommended that trips in the area north of the Omo National Park only be undertaken with professional tour operators accompanied by Ethiopian security forces. Individual travel in the region is not recommended.


As in other East African countries, activities by terrorist groups in Ethiopia cannot be ruled out. In view of Ethiopia’s military engagement in Somalia, this applies above all to the terrorist organization al-Shabaab there, which regularly threatens countries engaged in Somalia. The location of Addis Ababa, as the seat of the African Union (AU), also increases the attractiveness for possible terrorist attacks. The Ethiopian government warns against activities of al-Shabaab in Ethiopia.

In recent years there have been isolated (attempted) bomb attacks in Addis Ababa. It cannot be ruled out that Ethiopia will continue to be the target of attacks in the future.

Greater caution is therefore advised, especially around western facilities and tourist destinations. This also applies to larger hotels. Attention should be paid to suspicious persons and abandoned items of luggage such as bags, parcels or bundles of textiles. Caution is also advised when participating in major events. Your own behavior should be as inconspicuous as possible. Larger gatherings of people should be avoided.

Land travel / kidnapping / crime / road traffic

Since demonstrations and protests are often to be expected in the Oromo and Amhara regions as well as in the Amhara region, travelers should find out about the security situation on a daily basis.

For the use of the road connections Addis Ababa – Djibouti, Addis Ababa – Shashemene – Moyale, Addis Abeba – Harar, Addis Abebe – Asosa, Addis Ababa – Gambella, Addis Ababa – Debreguracha, Gondar – Metema, Gondar – Humera and Addis Ababa – Shashemene – Dolo separate regulations apply. These include a ban on carrying firearms, knives and objects for starting a fire.

In Addis Ababa there are more frequent pickpockets and occasionally robberies on passers-by. Pay extra attention, especially after dark.

The country’s infrastructure is weak, and there are only a limited number of well-developed roads for overland travel. In principle, long-distance journeys should not be made in the late afternoon, at dusk or in the dark for reasons of road safety.

Before traveling inland, precise inquiries about the security situation should be obtained in individual cases. Particularly in the border regions and away from regularly used roads, an increased risk from attacks and, furthermore, from land mines can be assumed. In addition, the possibilities to get help in traffic accidents are extremely limited. It is therefore generally advisable to use local guides and, if necessary, to coordinate the trip with the local authorities.

Border area with Eritrea

Attacks by bandits and local underground organizations as well as kidnappings cannot be ruled out when driving into the direct border area with Eritrea and the Danakil Depression in North Afar. In January 2012, an armed attack on a tour group took place on the edge of the Ertale volcano in the Danakil desert, in which two German nationals were killed and other German and other EU citizens were injured (kidnappings lasting several weeks).

Against this background, the Federal Foreign Office advises against traveling independently to the Danakil Desert and the northern Afar region without being accompanied by Ethiopian security forces.

Newly laid land mines must also be expected there. In the southeast of the border region with Eritrea, the area on the Bure-Assab road is affected. It is not advisable to take the Eli Dar road towards Assab. If journeys are absolutely necessary, the local authorities should be informed and appropriate.

Ethiopia Travel Warning

Transportation in Romania

Transportation in Romania


Traveling by plane

Tarom (RO) (Internet: flies regularly to Constanta, Arad, Bacau, Caransebes, Baia Mare, Cluj-Napoca, Iasi, Satu Mare, Timisoara, Oradea, Tirgu Mures, Sibiu, Suceava and Tulcea.

On the way by car / bus

Even the most remote places in Romania can be reached by car. There is now a 334 km long motorway network.

A vignette is required for cars on the roads of Romania. The vignette is valid for one year from purchase. In addition to the annual vignette, drivers can also purchase a 30-day or 7-day vignette.

The vignettes are available at border crossings, petrol stations (PETROM, ROMPETROL, OMV and MOL) and at post offices.

The petrol station network is well developed. Credit cards are not accepted at the petrol stations.

According to youremailverifier, the Romanian Automobile Club (ACR) has its headquarters in Bucharest (Tel: (92 71) and offers members of similar organizations Breakdown services. An ADAC international emergency call station has been set up. It offers ADAC members and holders of ADAC international health and accident insurance assistance with hotels, rental cars, vehicle or patient repatriation. The emergency call station in Bucharest is manned during the week (Tel: (021) 223 45 25. Internet: At the weekend you can contact the emergency call station in Athens (see Greece). Buses go to almost all cities and villages. Taxis can be hailed in the street or ordered through hotels; one should use metered taxis.

Rental car

Reservations can be made at the airport or through the hotels. However, it is recommended to book a rental car with a chauffeur, as the traffic can be quite hectic. Documents: National or international driver’s license and the green insurance card. It is recommended that you take out short comprehensive insurance. The national driving license is sufficient for EU citizens. For nationals of EU and EFTA countries, the car registration number is used as proof of insurance. Nevertheless, EU and EFTA citizens are advised to take the international green insurance card with them in order to benefit from full insurance cover in the event of damage. Otherwise, the statutory minimum liability insurance cover applies. In addition, the green cardfacilitate accident recording.

Transportation in Romania

Traffic regulations:
The use of cell phones at the wheel is only permitted when using a hands-free system.
Drivers must always have a fire extinguisher and two warning triangles in their car.
Absolute alcohol ban.
Driving with dipped headlights during the day is compulsory all year round.

Speed limits:
within built-up areas: 50 km / h (40 km / h for motorcycles);
on country roads: 90 km / h (60 km / h for motorcycles);

on expressways and European roads: 100 km / h;
on motorways: 130 km / h.

Traveling in the city

There is good public transport available in the larger cities. Bucharest is the only city that has a metro network (Internet: Tickets are bought in advance and validated on the bus or train. There are day, week and two-week tickets. An independent minibus service operates 18 different routes.

On the go by train

The Romanian State Railways (Internet: is punctual, reliable and inexpensive. Some trains have sleeping and dining cars. Surcharge and seat reservation required for express and express trains. These run from Bucharest to Timisoara, Cluj-Napoca, Iasi, Constanta and Brasov. The “Rail Inclusive Tour” ticket also includes accommodation as well as transport. The train doors on Romanian trains are located relatively high above the platform, so boarding can often be a bit difficult for people with limited mobility.
Balkan Flexipass and InterRail passes are valid (for details see Germany).

On the way by ship

Shipping traffic on the Danube: From Calafat and from Moldova Veche, ships leave from Drobeta Turnu Severin and in Bechet you leave with SPET SA Bucuresti. There are ferries from Braila, Galati, Tulcea and from Smardan. Tulcea is connected to several villages in the Danube Delta by ferry.
There are currently no regular ferry transports departing from Romanian ports on the Black Sea.


Current information

Numerous demonstrations against controversial easing of anti-corruption legislation have taken place in larger cities across Romania. In Bucharest, hundreds of thousands took part in the first days of February, and there were also riots. It cannot be ruled out that the protests will continue and that there will be further riots.

Travelers are advised to follow the situation in the media and avoid crowds.

Transportation in Hungary

Transportation in Hungary


On the way by car / bus

According to youremailverifier, Hungary has a well-developed road network (Internet: There are eight major thoroughfares; except for the M8, they all start in Budapest. The two main connecting roads from Budapest are the M1 to Hegyeshalom and the M7, which connects Budapest with Lake Balaton. The M3 connects Budapest with eastern Hungary (as far as Görbehaza) and the M6 is the quickest way to get from Budapest to southern Hungary.

For the motorways (Internet: it is necessary to purchase an e-vignette which can be used for 4 days, 10 days, 1 month or 1 year at the toll booths on the motorway, at the Hegyeshalom border station and at the petrol stations in the Close to the motorway is available.

Emergency telephones can be found every 2 km on the motorways M1, M5, M7 and on Europastraße 5.

There is a well-developed network of petrol stations. All types of fuel commonly used in international traffic are available.

Bus: Volanbusz maintains bus routes to the cities in the country and to the resorts and vacation spots. Almost all Hungarian cities can be reached by bus from Budapest. Tickets are available from Volán and Ibusz offices across the country. There is also a bus network card.

Taxi: In order to avoid unpleasant surprises, the fare should be agreed upon before starting the journey.

Car rental at Ferihegy-Airport, at IBUSZ, Volán, the Budapest Tourist Office and the larger hotels.

Roadside Assistance:
The Hungarian Automobile Club operates a roadside assistance service on the weekends on the main roads and 24 hours on the motorways and can be reached nationwide on telephone number 188; (Address: Rómer Flóris u. 8, H-1024 Budapest. Tel: (01) 345 17 44 (24-hour helpline) (Internet:

An ADAC international emergency call station has also been set up ( Tel: (01) 345 17 17. Internet: It offers ADAC members and holders of an ADACForeign health and accident protection assistance with hotels, rental cars, vehicle or patient repatriation.

The national driving license is sufficient for EU citizens. For nationals of EU and EFTA countries, the car registration number is used as proof of insurance. Nevertheless, EU and EFTA citizens are advised to take the international green insurance card with them in order to benefit from full insurance cover in the event of damage. Otherwise, the statutory minimum liability insurance cover applies. The green card can also make it easier to record accidents.

Transportation in Hungary

Traffic regulations:
– Wear seat belts.
– Strict alcohol driving ban (0.0%).
– Even during the day, dipped headlights must be used outside built-up areas.
– Drivers and passengers of motor vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians must wear a safety vest outside the local area in poor visibility or darkness.
– Horn is only allowed in built-up areas if there is an immediate risk of an accident.
– Telephoning is only permitted with a hands-free system.
– Snow chains should always be carried in the vehicle during the winter season.

Speed limits for cars and motorcycles:
Motorway: 130 km / h
Expressway: 110 km / h
Country road: 90 km / h
Town: 50 km / h

Speed limits for buses:
Motorway: 80 km / h
Expressway: 70 km / h
Country road: 70 km / h
Town: 50 km / h

Note on traveling by road

Travelers who drive to Hungary by car should make sure that the TÜV stickers on their vehicles have not expired, otherwise there is a risk of serious problems with the Hungarian authorities.

Attention: Traffic violations such as speeding, non-compliance with seatbelts, driving under the influence of alcohol or driving over red traffic lights can result in heavy fines of up to HUF 300,000 (approx. € 1,100), which are collected on the spot. If you don’t pay immediately, you can expect your car to be confiscated.

Traveling in the city

The larger cities have good local transport networks. In Budapest there are buses, trolleybuses, trams, suburban trains (HEV), three underground lines and ferries.

Tickets for trams and buses are available in advance in tobacco shops. Day tickets are available for all modes of transport. The trams and buses run from 4.30 a.m. to 11 p.m., there are also some night lines (marked with “É”). Subway service from 4:30 a.m. to 11:30 p.m. There is also a rack railway (Városmajor – Széchenyi hill), an old train from the pioneering days of the railway (Hüvösvölgy – Széchenyi hill), a chair lift and a cable car. In the other cities there are trams or buses.

On the go by train

The Hungarian rail network runs radially, the center is Budapest. The route network is operated by MÁV (ticket office in Budapest, Tel / Fax: (01) 322 84 05; Internet: and covers 8,500 km. Timetable information is available at (01) 461 55 00 (international timetables) and (01) 461 54 00 (national timetables).

All major cities can be easily reached by rail; connections are good, but facilities are often inadequate. There is a surcharge for express trains; Seat reservations are required, especially in summer. Tickets and reservation cards can be purchased up to 60 days in advance.

Vintage train (website: run according to the schedule to the Danube Bend from Budapest West Railway Station to Kismaros Railway Station (every Saturday in spring and summer).
Further information is available from MAV Nosztalgia GmbH, Tel / Fax: (01) 302 00 69.

Note on rail travel

Fare reductions / special tickets: For retirees over the age of 60 there is a fare reduction RES. Tourist cards (valid for 7-10 days) are also available. The JUNIOR discount applies to people up to 26 years of age. Children under 4 years travel for free. Further information from the tourist office (see addresses).