Tag: Brazil

Salvador, Brazil

Salvador, Brazil

Salvador, the capital of the state of Bahia, is certainly one of the most colorful cities in Brazil. The spirit of those times when it was the capital of the country still hovers here: the former grandeur is gone, but the atmosphere of old colonial Brazil is felt on every street.

From its founding in 1549, Salvador immediately developed into an important seaport, a center for the sugar industry and the slave trade, and became Brazil’s first Portuguese capital. The city had the status of the capital until, in 1763, all the administrative functions of the state were transferred to Rio de Janeiro.

Currently, Salvador is the third largest city in Brazil with a population of about 3.5 million and retains its position as a rich agricultural and industrial area. Salvador is the largest carnival center, colorful and large-scale processions are held here, not inferior in beauty to the parades in Rio de Janeiro, but carried out according to their own rules.

The flight from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro takes 1 hour 50 minutes. From Sao Paulo – 2 hours.
The airport is located 20 km from the city center of Salvador.

The beaches of Salvador The
beach line of Salvador has over 40 km. In total, there are about 20 equipped beaches, the most popular is Itapoa. The famous beach area of ​​Barra with the beach do Farol. Here is the old fort of St. Anthony and a pretty lighthouse on the cape. Barra is followed by the districts of Ondina, Rio Vermelho and Amaralina. Other beaches of the city – Ribeira, Pituba, Flamengo are also quite popular.
In the vicinity of the city, the islands of Itaparica and Ilha de Mare are of interest – very beautiful corners of nature with beautiful beaches.
Popular resorts are located not far from Salvador:
Praia do Forte – 55 km (to the north)
Costa do Sauipe – 70 km (to the north, beyond Praia do Forte)

Entertainment, excursions and sights of Salvador
The main feature of Salvador is the richness of its traditions, formed under the influence of African culture. The city is famous for having the highest percentage of people of African descent in all of Brazil. Most of the population practices the religious cults Oiruba, Candomblé, Umbanda, Kimbanda, in a bizarre way combined with Catholic customs. At night, drums can be heard on the streets of Salvador: supporters of the candomblé cult, dressed in white clothes, regularly perform rituals addressed to their gods. The influence of the “Black Continent” is manifested even in the local Portuguese language, saturated with African words and intonations.

Salvador is divided into upper and lower cities. The upper city, or Cidade Alta, and especially its oldest quarter – Pelourinho, has always been considered the center of state, administrative and spiritual life. To overcome the 50 meters difference between the upper and lower cities, a special lift was built – the Elevador-Lacerda city lift. It is he who is considered the center of the city and goes to the Rio Branco Palace – the most pompous building in Salvador.
Costa Azul Park – the largest park in the city – is located in the Costa Azul area. There is a football field, cycling paths, restaurants, bars, a theater that can accommodate 600 people and a beautiful 35-meter long bridge over the Kamaruzipe River connecting the park with Magaliaes Avenue.
The Garden of Lovers is located near Costa Azul Park. There is also something to do here: bars, restaurants, sports grounds.
Salvador is the birthplace of the Brazilian martial art of capoeira. This sport is even more popular here than football. There is a capoeira school in Salvador on every street. In the Piazza Pelourinho and near the Mercado Modelo market, every day you can see the performances of capoeira masters.

The climate
in Salvador is always great weather for a beach holiday; most of the precipitation falls from April to August; the sunniest season is from October to March; even during the hottest periods, cool breezes blow from the ocean.

Salvador, Brazil

Brazil Figurative Arts Part 2

Brazil Figurative Arts Part 2

Among the disciples of Grandjean de Montigny are José Maria Jacintho Rebello (1821-1872), architect and landscape painter, and Francisco Joaquim Bittencourt da Silva, sculptor and architect; among those of Auguste Taunay, there are the sculptors José Joaquim Allão, José Jorge Duarte, Xisto Antonio Pires, Candido Matheus Faria and others; among those of Marco Ferrez, the sculptor Francisco Manuel Chaves Pinheiro (1882-1884). In painting, many foreigners flourished in Rio de Janeiro at this time, some of whom were educated in art by the members of the French commission. We name the Italians Eduardo De Martino, who illustrated the landscape and military history of Brazil with vigor and vivacity, Luigi Santoro and Alessandro Biagini. Among the Brazilian painters he distinguished himself, in addition to numerous disciples of Debret: Manuel de Araujo Porto-Alegre, then baron of Santo Angelo (1806-1879), distinguished poet and writer, who also carried out his activity in teaching and diplomacy, whose paintings attest to a good command of technical means, imagination and color. We remember:D. Pedro I, Visconde de Araguaya, Luiza Rosa benfeitora from Santa Casa, a Ceia (Dome of the Santa Casa), Passagem do Vermelho Tues., coroação de D. Pedro II, not finished. Among the continuers of French teaching, Porto-Alegre is the culminating figure.

While in the capital there was such an intense movement, in the provinces there were nuclei that were not without importance. The Province of St. Paul produces excellent painter José de Almeida Iunior Fleming, author of O Lenhador, Os caipiras, Picador de smoke, Amola ç AO interrompida; that of Bahia, Felix Pereira, Manuel Ignacio da Costa, Feliciano de Aguiar, Bento José Rufino, Joaquim Tourinho, Olympio Freire da Motta and Firmino Monteiro; those of Pernambuco, Pará, Maranhão, Ceará, Rio Grande do Sul, other valiant artists, especially painters. We also remember, in Pará, the Italians Domenico de Angelis, painter and sculptor, Pignatelli, Righini, Capranesi, the portrait painters Centofante and Rocattani, and the architect Calandrini.

But the highest artistic expressions are found, under the empire, in “heroic” or “historical” painting determined by the long war with Paraguay: when Brazil affirmed its South American supremacy, Brazilian art also reached its maximum splendor for especially the work of Pedro Americo and Victor Meirelles, to whom Brazil owes a vast work in battle pictures and other genres of painting.

Victor Meirelles de Lima (Santa Catharina, 1832-1903), che studiò anche to Rome and Parigi, compose, fra moltissime altre pitture: S. John the Baptist in carcere (1859), First Mass, Moema, First outcasts, Riachuelo Battle, Battle of Guararapes, Pass Humaytá, Sticking ç to, flagella ç will of Christ, Pledge Princeza Regent Lady Dona Isabel Countess d’Eu in 1872, Sagra ç will of the Church of Candelaria in 1899. Lasciò numerosi discepoli.

Next to him Pedro Americo de Figueiredo and Mello (Parahiba do Norte, 1843-1905), a follower of the classical ideal, he painted historical paintings, including Avahi, Campo – Grande and Batalha de S. Martino, requested by the Italian government. They are also its Petrus to vincula, Colombo, Moysés no Nile, two portraits: David and Pedro II, Socrates Alcibiades afastando dos bra ç os do vicio, S. Marcos, A visão de S. Paulo, Cabesa de S. Jeronymo, Paz and Concordia and many other paintings, made in Brazil, in Paris, in Italy. Success smiled on him, and he received many honors especially from D. Pedro II.

After 1889, the republic was proclaimed, art did not cease to progress. In all the capitals of the confederation, and mainly in Rio de Janeiro, a vivifying breath revives painting and sculpture and also gives architecture a new luxuriance such as had not yet been seen in Brazil, with the monumental reconstruction of many cities. The renewed fervor for ancient Brazilian colonial art is no stranger to this luxuriance.

Manáos, in the heart of the Amazon, builds important buildings. Belém del Pará follows with the same renewing spirit. In this city we remember the architect José de Castro Figueiredo, the sculptors Wolfang Miranda, Nicephoro Moreira, Guilherme Pearce, Henrique Dumont, Giulietta Franca, and the painters Antonio dos Santos Gaspar, also architect and sculptor, Chaves Pinheiro and Bittencourt da Silva. S. Paolo boasts an excellent academy.

In the recent reconstruction of the federal capital, most of the engineers and architects have had: Frontin, Heitor de Mello, Souza Aguiar, Del Vecchio, Alfredo Lisboa, Francisco Bicalho, Vieira Souto, Silva Lara, Ernesto da Cunha de Araujo Vianna, Antonio de Paula Freitas, Carlos Sampaio, Sampaio Corrêa and many others. We remember the sculptors Candido Caetano de Almeid, in Reis, Hortensio Cordoville José Octavio Corrêa Lima and Rodolfo Bernardelli, born in Mexico, but Brazilian by election, for many years director of the academy, author of numerous works, among which we note O Christo ea adultera, the Descobrimento do Brasil group ; the equestrian statues of Osorio and Duque de Caxias. Finally, we also mention the painters Decio Villares, Aurelio de Figueiredo, Henrique Bernardelli, brother of Rodolfo, Parreiras, Baptista da Costa, Belmiro de Almeida, Rodolfo Amodeo, Pedro Weingärtner, Eugenio Latour, Helio Silinger, and others.

Brazil Figurative Arts 2

Brazil Figurative Arts

Brazil Figurative Arts

The history of art in Brazil can be divided into two distinctly distinct periods, a colonial and an autonomous period.

In Portugal, architecture flourished late and did not always have a chronological development corresponding to that of the rest of Europe. The Romanesque style spread there when it was abandoned in other countries, and did not last long; longer the Gothic, which left numerous vestiges there. The Manueline is the Gothic style transformed as a plastic symbol to the Portuguese aspiration towards the sea and conquest. Cultivated during the reigns of John II and Manuel I, it declined in the face of the classicism that resurfaced throughout the old continent. Thus the Greek-Roman neoclassical succeeded the Portuguese Gothic.

Religious architecture was imported to Brazil by the Jesuits, who adopted Greco-Roman classicism, eliminating what it smacked of pagan, and seeking maximum exterior simplicity in contrast with the sumptuousness of the interiors: they raised facades that were often cold, bare, inelegant, with a pediment curved or triangular, with one or two towers topped by a tetrahedron. It is the so-called Jesuit style; but in truth the Jesuits did not introduce their own artistic style, which they did not have, but they transported Portuguese and Italian Baroque, with its strengths and defects, to Brazil. The plethora of ornaments which, inside, sometimes came to hide the architectural structure, is found, in fact, also in non-Jesuit churches.

Among the main monuments we must remember the tower of Olinda, erected in 1535 by the first donor of Pernambuco, Duarte Coelho, and whose ruins still existed in the middle of the century. XVIII. Besides it, Olinda, one of the richest cities in Brazil, had various monasteries, the church of the Savior, fortresses, etc.

In the century XVI we find the names of the architect Antonio Pires, Jesuit, of the sculptor Diogo Jacome, of the architect Manuel Fernandes, in Pernambuco (1585), and of the Capuchin Francisco dos Santos, who directed the construction of the monasteries of St. Francis, in Olinda and Parahiba. The most important constructions of this century are the Jesuit colleges of S. Paolo (1554), Rio de Janeiro (1570), of S. Salvador (1572) and Olinda (1576), for which marble blocks were transported to Brazil. in Europe.

Conspicuous was the building activity in Brazil during the century. XVIII and among the most notable buildings that arose at that time in Rio de Janeiro, the church of the Military Cross (1735), the Arches aqueduct (1751), the Opera House (1767), which burned down and replaced from the Manuel Luiz theater (1769); in Belém del Pará, the cathedral (1748), the most majestic in Brazil, the government palace (1761), designed by Lande, the fortress of Macapá (1764), designed by the military engineer HA Galussi, and a house of Mercy (1787); in Minas Geraes the church of Caeté (1757); in Bahia, the church of Bomfim.

Not a few sculptors flourish in Pernambuco and Bahia, of which the main one is Chagas, called Cabra, from Bahia, author of images of a deeply human painful expression, which are found in the church of the Carmelite tertiaries. Among them, the group of Pains, S. John and the Magdalene, the Virgin, the Child Jesus, and the Madonna del Carmelo.

Many artists of Bahia were of Mineira origin, since in the province of Minas Geraes the flourishing of the arts followed the prosperity deriving from the exploitation of gold and other mines. The greatest representative of this particularly brilliant period of Brazilian art was Antonio Francisco Lisboa (1730-1814), called the Aleijadinho following physical deformity. Abandoning himself first to loves and revelries, then becoming a solitary misanthrope, he gave rise to poetic legends around his name; disseminated his works in the province of Minas, especially in Ouro Preto, S. João d’El-Rey, Marianna, Congonhas, Santa Luzia and Sabará. He is the author of the twelve great Prophetsin the church of NS de Mattosinhos in Congonhas do Campo. He was responsible for the churches of S. Francesco d’Assisi in Our0 Preto and S. João d’El-Rey.

Another notable artist was the half-caste Mestre Valentim, that is Valentim de Fonseca and Silva (1750-1813), the most famous of the colonial sculptors and architects, to whom many works in Rio de Janeiro are owed. He left a school, to which José Carlos Pinto, Simeão José de Nazareth, Francisco de Paula Borges, etc. belonged. Other contemporaries are: José da Conceição, Simão da Cunha, Seraphim dos Anjos, Antonio de Padua, Martinho de Brito, sculptor and painter, and Xavier das Conchas.

In the early years of the century. XIX, political transformations affect the destinies of art. Various and important institutes are founded in the capital, such as the naval, medical, military and fine arts academies, the schools of commerce, agriculture and botany, the library and the museum. The Viceroy Count of Arcos builds a large palace, which later renovations have changed character. Of the same time are the Quinta de S. Christovam (later an imperial palace, and today a national museum) and the S. Giovanni theater, today S. Pedro de Alcantara.

We can consider as the father of painting, in Bahia, Eusebio de Mattos Guerra (1620 or 1624-1692), brother of the poet Gregorio de Mattos, and author of canvases praised by biographers, but dispersed or largely lost. Towards the middle of the following century, Josè Joaquim da Rocha, mineiro of origin, admirable for his activity, and for his fervent and disinterested teaching, flourished, also in Bahia, and the Jesuit Alexandre de Gusmão, author, among other things, of a Nativity. The main works of JJ da Rocha are preserved in numerous churches. His best disciples were Lopes Marques, Antonio Dias, Antonio Pinto, Ramos Nunes da Motta, Souza Coutinho, José Theophilo de Jesus, Jose Verissimo, Lourenço Machado and Franco Vellasco (1778-1833), the most spontaneous of the school and very fruitful portrait painter. He too left behind disciples of merit: Bento José Campinam (1791-1874), José Rodrigues Nunes (1800-1881) and others. Then the decline of Bahian painting begins, and the center of the arts becomes Rio de Janeiro which had already had an artistic tradition and where the oldest painter was a Flemish friar Ricardo do Pilar (end of the 17th century), who in the monastery of S Bento painted numerous pictures, and was compared, for life, to Fra Giovanni da Fiesole.

From this old Fluminense school we mention: José de Oliveira (1690-1763), João de Souza, João Florencio Muggio, the half-caste Cunha (1737-1809), vigorous artist, author, among other things, of the portrait of the Count of Bobadella, Leandro Joaquim (1738-1798), painter and architect, Raimundo da Costa e Silva, painter and sculptor, and Francisco Solano Benjamin, painter. At the beginning of the century. XIX we note in Rio de Janeiro the arrival of a peregrine artist, Manuel Dias de Oliveira Brasiliense (died in 1831), known as the Roman, having studied in Rome; of his vast work Remember: A Sant’Anna, a Conception (the National Gallery), a head S. Paulon ivory, several portraits and landscapes. Another excellent portraitist was José Leandro de Carvalho (1750-1831). In the beginning of the century. The engravers Romão Eloy de Almeida, João José de Souza and José Fernandez Portugal also flourished in the 19th century, the latter also a cartographer.

The starting point of the autonomous period of Brazilian art can be assigned to the year 1816, when Dom John VI called to Rio de Janeiro a commission of French artists, organized by J. Le Breton, and composed of the Taunay brothers (Nicolas and Auguste), by Debret, Grandjean de Montigny, Dillon, Bonrepos, Levavasseur, Meunié, Ovide, Enout, Level, Pilite, Fabre, Roy (father and son), Ferrez (Zefirino and Marco). Only after many difficulties were they able to work usefully and make numerous disciples. The French influence had beneficial effects, and brought Brazil into contact with the modern art movement.

Brazil Figurative Arts

History of Brazil from Independence until Today

History of Brazil from Independence until Today

Brazilian independence 1822

In 1807 the Portuguese king fled Napoleon’s troops and went to Brazil. In 1815 Brazil was equated with the mother country and in 1821 the king returned to Portugal. This period is also called the Kingdom of Brazil (1808-1821). The king gave Brazil to his son Pedro I in 1821, who declared Brazil independent a year later and declared himself emperor.

Empire of Brazil (1822-1889)

As Pedro I he now ruled Brazil. But in 1831 there was a military uprising and Pedro had to abdicate. He returned to Portugal and handed the throne over to his son, Pedro II. He was only five years old, but remained Brazil’s ruler until 1889.

The economy flourished, and coffee and rubber became important products sold in Europe. Pedro II also had roads, rails and telephone lines built. Allied with Argentina and Uruguay, Brazil defeated Paraguay in a bloody war (Triple Alliance War 1865-1870).

In 1889, however, there was a coup led by the military. Pedro II still stood for the old colonial power Portugal. Another reason was that Pedro campaigned for the abolition of slavery. This led to resistance from the large landowners. While Pedro was in Europe, his daughter Isabella passed a law in 1888 that abolished slavery. The emperor’s support from the large landowners was gone. Brazil became a republic.

Rubber boom

In the reign of Pedro II. Brazil’s economy flourished. The rubber boom started in 1870. From the resin of the rubber tree one could make rubber since 1839. Rubber became an important raw material in the growing industry in Europe. In order to extract rubber, the trees have to be scratched so that the rubber, that is the milk sap of the tree, flows out.

In Brazil, the indigenous population in particular was forced to do this work. The village of Manaus on the Amazon became the center of the rubber trade and grew into a large city. The rubber boom ended around 1920 after the seeds of the carriage tree were smuggled into England, where they grew into little trees that were shipped to Asia. There succeeded plantations to create and so Asia was the new center of the rubber trade.

“Old Republic” (1889-1930)

The coup against the emperor was led by the military Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca. He became the first president of the new republic. Brazil was divided into federal states. The period up to 1930 is also called the “old republic”. The country was politically stable. Although the rubber trade declined, coffee and sugar cane were still important products. During the First World War, however, coffee prices collapsed.

Getúlio Vargas (1930-1945) and the following period until 1964

Resistance arose against the rule of the rich coffee plantation owners. The population felt excluded and disadvantaged. Getúlio Vargas led a revolt and came to power. In 1937 he proclaimed the “new state” (Estado Nuevo). He ruled dictatorially and the country was again centrally ruled. Although he also campaigned for workers’ rights, he was a staunch opponent of communism.

In 1945 Vargas allowed elections and did not run again himself. Several presidents followed at short intervals. Vargas himself was re-elected in 1950 and remained in office until 1954.

In 1961 João Goulart became president. The economic situation was difficult at the time, there were many illiterate people in the country and inflation was high. Goulart tried to implement land reform, which fueled fear of communism. He also fought against illiteracy. In 1964 the military staged a coup, supported by the USA.

Military dictatorship (1964-1985)

Marshal Branco was installed as the new president. Several laws consolidated the power of the military. Political opponents were persecuted, the press censored and new parties were banned. Marshal Costa e Silva, General Médici and General Geisel followed as presidents. A cautious democratization began under Geisel, which General Figueiredo continued. He was President of Brazil from 1979 to 1985. The problems were great: Brazil was in debt and suffered from inflation and corruption. In 1985 free elections were finally allowed.

Democracy (since 1985)

Inflation and corruption remained a problem even among the new democratically elected presidents. In 1991 Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay founded Mercosur. In this common internal market, for example, customs duties will no longer apply. Mercosur strengthened the economy of its member countries. People could buy less and less for their money, so the currency was reformed. This means that the money was worth more in the end.

Fernando Henrique Cardoso ruled from 1995 to 2003, under which the national debt rose again. In 2003 Lula da Silva was elected President. He is a member of the PT (Partido dos Trabalhadores) workers’ party and remained in office until 2011. The Fome Zero program was launched to combat hunger and poverty. Economically, Brazil showed high growth for years. After two terms in office, Lula da Silva could no longer run for election.

Dilma Rousseff, also from PT, became the new President of Brazil in 2011. The economy grew more slowly now. She did not continue Lula da Silva’s social policy. In 2013 there were massive protests against the government. Also corruption was accused Rousseff. Nevertheless, she was re-elected and began her second term in 2015.

In May 2016, proceedings were initiated against Dilma Rousseff that removed her from her position. So she was deposed as president. Temporarily, Michel Temer took over the office. He was then elected President in August 2016. The 2018 elections had to be decided by a runoff, which Jair Bolsonaro won. He has been the President of the Republic since January 1, 2019. He is considered right-wing populist and repeatedly expresses himself hostile to women or racist.

History of Brazil