Bologna, Emilia-Romagna (Italy)
Bologna stands on the Reno River. This is a student city, because here is the oldest University in Europe, founded in the 15th century. Bologna is also called Red, because almost all the buildings of the city are made of red stone.
The old town has two centers – Piazza Maggiore and Piazza Neptune. On Piazza Maggiore is the Communale Palace, which houses an art gallery with works by local artists of the 13th-19th centuries. Here is the largest church in Bologna. – Church of St. Petronio. Its length is 132 meters, width – 57 meters, height – 44 meters. Piazza Maggiore is a great place to relax, to sit outdoors in a cozy cafe. Piazza Neptune is known for its beautiful Neptune Fountain by the sculptor Giambologna, which is a real masterpiece of the Renaissance. It was built in the 16th century.
One of the symbols of Bologna are the Torre Garisenda, 48 meters high, and the Torre degli Asinelli, 98 meters high. The Dominican church of San Domenico stands out in the architecture of the city. Its construction began after the death of St. Dominic, here is his tomb – Arch di San Domenico. The tomb is decorated with sculptures and reliefs depicting scenes from the life of the saint. It is worth seeing Santo Stefano – an ensemble of four medieval churches united under one roof. These are the churches of Crocifisso (11th century), San Sepolcro (11th century), Santi Vitale e Agricola (5th century) and Santa Trinita. In the center of San Sepolcro is the tomb of St. Petronius, an enlarged copy of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. Inside Santi Vitale e Agricola, the sarcophagi of Saints Vitalius and Agricola, who were martyred in the 4th century, are kept. Santa Trinita houses a small museum of miniatures and religious art, including the Adoration of the Magi by Simone dei Crocefissi.
The city gallery National Pinakothek exhibited a collection of paintings by masters of the Bologna school, the most famous masterpieces – “Madonna in Glory” by Perugino and “The Ecstasy of St. Cecilia” by Raphael.
In addition, Bologna is the main exhibition center of Italy, there are many exhibition centers here.
Verona, Verona (Italy)
According to WATCHTUTORIALS, Verona is located in northern Italy near Venice. This city was glorified by Shakespeare in the tragedy “Romeo and Juliet”. Verona even has Juliet ‘s House, which according to legend belonged to the Capuleti family. In the courtyard of this house there is a sculpture of the heroine of the tragedy. Juliet’s house is open to the public.
This Italian city is replete with architectural monuments. The main attraction of Verona – the ancient Roman Amphitheater, which was built in the 1st century AD. It consisted of four elliptical rings with internal and external axes; builders carved 44 rows of stairs from marble blocks. The amphitheater also included an outer oval ring, of which only a small fragment remains at the moment. Since the 19th century, opera performances have been given in the Amphitheater, now it is the largest open-air opera house.
The crowded Grass Square is interesting. In ancient times, the Roman Forum was located here. Now on the square you can see the Gothic House of Merchants and the Town Hall building. In the Middle Ages, the House of Merchants served as the residence of the guilds.
The Palace of the Soviets, a real example of Verona architecture, was built in the 15th century. On the cornice of the Palace are five statues depicting prominent Veronians of the ancient Roman era.
AT Verona has a monument to Dante Alighieri. The statue was unveiled on the anniversary of the poet’s birth, May 14, 1865.
Numerous churches are located throughout the city. The church of Santa Maria Antica is made in the Romanesque style, in front of it is the cemetery of the “lords” of Verona with tombstones; in the church of St. Anastasia, the floor is lined with white, pink and blue marble, and inside are numerous masterpieces of local artists; Cathedral of the 12th century with a magnificent interior hall, where there are pillars of complex configuration made of red Verona marble and lancet arcades supporting cross vaults with golden stars on a blue background.
Confirmation of the centuries-old history of the city is Porta Borsari – a building dating back almost two thousand years, which is the facade of an unpreserved building that played the role of fortification and the barracks of the garrison guarding the main entrance to the city.
Viterbo, Lazio (Italy)
Viterbo is located in the northern part of the Lazio region, 100 km from Rome. The city was founded by the Etruscans, and from 1257 to 1281, during the time of unrest, it was the residence of the popes. Viterbo is one of the best preserved medieval towns in the region. The main attraction of the historical part of the city is Piazza San Lorenzo, the religious center of medieval Viterbo. In the 12th century, the Cathedral of San Lorenzo was built on the square, and in the 13th century, the Papal Palace (Palazzo dei Papi). The Medieval Quarter of San Pellegrino is perfectly preserved, with tiny gray houses and low arches. From other sights of Viterbo we can distinguish the oldest church in the city – Chiesa di Santa Maria Nuova, Piazza del Plebiscito with the building of the city government, the Gothic church of Chiesa di San Francesco with the tombs of Popes Clement IV and Adrian V, the Grande Fountain (13 century) and the City Museum.
3 km to the west of Viterbo there are hydrogen sulfide hot springs with a water temperature of about +50 degrees. The best known are the Bulicam sources, which are mentioned in Dante’s Divine Comedy. Based on local sources, spa centers such as Terme dei Papi and Pianeta Benessere were built, where, in addition to pools with healing water, a variety of spa treatments are offered. In addition, in the vicinity of Viterbo it is worth visiting the city Bagnaia with extensive gardens that surround the Villa Lante of the 16th century, the city of Caprarola, where the Renaissance palace of the Palazzo Farnese is located, the city of Bomarzo and its Parco dei Mostri, the city of Tuscania with the church of Sant Peter (8th century), Etruscan necropolises and the Etruscan Museum and the picturesque Lake Bolsenalocated in the crater of an extinct volcano. Lake Bolsena is located 30 km north of Viterbo. This is the largest lake in the Lazio region and the largest volcanic lake in Europe, its area is 113.5 square meters. km. Lake Bolsena is a great place for a summer holiday, but it is worth remembering that in the summer, on weekends, the local beaches are crowded, because a lot of people come here on weekends Rome and surrounding cities. In addition to beach holidays and water sports, Lake Bolsena offers an interesting excursion program. Tourists should go to the city of Bolsena, located on the northeastern shore of the lake. It is known for the miracle of the Body of the Lord, which happened here in 1263, when during the Communion of a Bohemian priest, a piece of bread, bitten by him, began to bleed. After this incident, the Roman popes introduced a new religious holiday – the Feast of the Body and Blood of the Lord. You can see drops of blood, according to legend, left over from the legendary Communion of the 13th century, on four stones of the Chiesa di Santa Cristina church (11th century), which is located in the historical part of the city. It is also worth visiting the city of Montefiascone, where white wine of the brand “Est!Est!!Est!!!” is produced, and Bisentina island, where the residence of the popes was located and where many churches and the remains of Etruscan settlements have been preserved.