Tag: South Korea

Science and Culture of South Korea

Science and Culture of South Korea

South Korea government and business circles are aware that South Korea’s economic prospects will largely depend on how successful the development of science and education will be. The education system consists of six years of primary education, three years of secondary education, three years of secondary education in advanced schools. Higher education can be obtained at colleges and universities (ca. 230 in 2001), which also run master’s and postgraduate programs that provide an opportunity to obtain a scientific degree.

According to Andyeducation, school education is paid for by central and local authorities (in the proportion of 78%: 22%), so it is practically universally accessible: only a small part of the cost of purchasing teaching aids is covered by parents. Although higher education institutions are 80% private, the government provides financial support to both the universities themselves and the parents of students, providing preferential loans to pay for the education of children. Officials are encouraged to improve their educational level in the country and abroad. The number of college and university students in 2001 was 1.73 million. Leading universities in the country: Seoul State University, Korea University, Kyung Hee University, Korea University of Education. Tens of thousands of South Korean students receive or continue their education in higher education institutions in the US, Europe and Japan.

The development of a strategy for the development of science in the Republic of Kazakhstan is determined by the Council for Science and Technology, headed by the President of the country. The committees of the Council coordinate the activities of government departments and the private sector in the scientific field. Particular attention is paid to the balance of power in the triangle “scientific laboratories – universities – private business”.

The Ministry of Science and Technology is responsible for the specific financing and implementation of scientific and technical programs, their distribution among scientific centers. The Ministry of Economy, Industry and Energy is responsible for the implementation of priority areas for the development of high-tech industries. The Ministry of Informatics and Communications supports the development of information infrastructure.

A modern scientific base has been created in the country, the financing of which in 2001 reached 12 billion dollars, or 2.7% of GDP (1/3 – budget expenditures, 2/3 – private). The annual increase in spending on science in 1998-2001 was 14%. Among the leading industries are medicine and precision instrumentation, electronics. In these industries, R&D spending accounted for 5% and 4.2% of sales, respectively. However, the share of spending by the largest South Korean companies on R&D is lower than that of the leading Western corporations. Government spending will increase on nuclear research, biotechnology, and so on. Meanwhile, the 20 largest private companies account for 40% of all employed in science and 47% of scientists with a doctorate degree, 55% of all investment in R&D.

Institutional transformations become an acute problem, since the hierarchical and complex structure of large business, its concentration on solving tactical problems at the expense of strategic goals hinders innovation. Reforming the innovation sector implies its commercialization by encouraging the restructuring of large conglomerates, supporting the development of small venture businesses and stimulating the expansion of domestic demand for high-tech products. Only during 2001, declared by the government “the year of biotechnology”, and until the end. 2002 up to 600 venture companies specializing in biotechnology are created with the help of the government.

Since 2001, the Ministry of Science and Technology has sharply increased spending on financial support for scientific personnel. To this end, the practice of awarding prizes, grants, and scientific scholarships is expanding. The goal of modern state policy is to significantly improve the financial situation of those employed in science and strengthen the prestige of scientific work, to raise the status of South Korean scientists in society, who for a long time were in the shadow of the bureaucracy, military and businessmen, and also suffered significant material losses as a result of the crisis of 1997–98.

There are 233 museums in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Among the largest are the National Museum of Korea and the National Museum of Folk Art (Seoul). The museum complexes located in the ancient cities and former capitals of Gyeongju and Buyeo are famous. In addition to state, municipal and university museums, there are more than 80 museums in the country created by individuals and corporations.

In the development of contemporary fine arts in the South of the Korean Peninsula, an important role was played by the activities of the 1950s. The National Exhibition, supported by the state and giving priority to the realistic direction of painting and sculpture. In the subsequent period, other artistic directions developed in the country. Of great importance for the modern cultural life of the Republic of Kazakhstan was the holding in 1995 in Gwangju of the international festival of arts “Kwangju Biennale”, which reflected the diversity of artistic trends in the art of the Republic of Kazakhstan, its growing ties with world cultural centers.

Modern Korean literature (including modern prose and poetry) is developing under the significant influence of Western literature.

Korean musical and theatrical art is rooted in primitive religious rites. Traditional colorful theatrical performances that combine dance, songs and oral narration are presented on the stage of the Cheongdong Theater (Seoul). The first Western-style theater opened in Seoul in 1908. There are several theaters and stages in the Republic of Kazakhstan that stage performances of various genres. A number of them are located on Daehanno Street in the center of Seoul.

South Korean cinema after rapid growth in the 2nd half. 1950s experienced a long decline. Since the 1980s the film industry in Kazakhstan is on the rise again. The popularity of South Korean films is growing, many of which have received recognition at international film festivals in Cannes, Berlin, Venice, and Moscow.

Opera, symphonic music, classical and modern ballet are becoming increasingly popular in the country. Currently, 30 symphony orchestras operate in Seoul and other cities of the country. Korean singers and musicians, many of whom were educated in the best educational institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan and other countries, regularly perform on the stages of famous theaters and at the world’s leading concert venues.

Education of South Korea

History of Seoul, South Korea

History of Seoul, South Korea

Seoul’s history dates back to 18 BCE. However, humans have occupied the area that now constitutes Seoul since the Paleolithic. Seoul has been a great settlement for over 2,000 years. It has been the capital of numerous kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula since it was established.

Baekje and the early prehistoric era

Humans are believed to have lived in the area that is now Seoul on the lower reaches of the Han River during the Paleolithic and archaeological research programs show that people began to lead determined lives beginning in the Neolithic Age. With the introduction of bronze objects around 700 BCE, the settlements gradually began to spread from the river basin to the inland areas.

In 18 BCE, the Baekje kingdom founded its capital city, Wiryeseong, which is now the interior of Seoul. Baekje subsequently developed from a member state of the Mahan confederation into one of the three kingdoms of Korea. There are several remains of city walls in the Seoul area dating from this time. Among them, Pungnap Toseong, a wall of earth in the southeastern part of present-day Seoul, (in Pungnap-dong, just near the Jamsil area) that is widely regarded as the main Wiryeseong site. However, another earthen wall, Toseong Mongchon, nearby, also dates from the early Baekje era.

All of these sites are in the south of the Han River, and do not belong to the Seoul Historic District (centered on what is now Jongno), which is well in the north of the river.

Era of the Three Kingdoms

As the three kingdoms competed for this strategic region of the Korean Peninsula, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in 392 and from Goguryeo to the Silla- Baekje alliance in 551.

Silla soon gained complete control of the city and the peninsula, and during the Unified Silla period, Hanyang was first considered a district of the city, and later the city itself.

It was Goryeo

It was thought that the kingdom that controlled the Han River Valley would also have strategic control of the entire peninsula, as it was a transportation hub. In 1104, King Sukjong of the Goryeo Dynasty built a palace in Seoul, which was then known as Namgyeong or “Capital of the South”. Seoul developed into a large-scale city with political significance during this time.

It was Joseon and the Korean Empire

At the beginning of the Joseon dynasty in 1394, the capital was moved to Seoul, also known as Hanyang and later as Hanseong, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty.

Originally completely surrounded by an imposing circular wall to provide its citizens with safety from wild animals such as the tiger, thieves and attacks. The city has grown beyond the walls and although the walls are gone (except in the mountains north of the downtown area), the gates remain near the central area of Seoul, among which Sungnyemun (commonly known as Namdaemun, or South Gate) and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dongdaemun, or East Gate), as well as Sukjeongmun (commonly known as Bukdaemun, or North Gate) and four smaller gates which include Changuimun and Hyehwamun. During the Joseon Dynasty, doors opened and closed every day, accompanied by the tolling of large bells.

In the 19th century, after hundreds of years of isolation, Seoul opened its doors to foreigners and began to modernize. Seoul became the first city in East Asia to have electricity, trams, water, telephone, and telegraph systems all at once. Much of this was due to trade with the United States. For example, the Seoul Electric Company, Seoul Electric Trolley, and Seoul Fresh Spring Water Company were US-owned companies. In 1904, an American by the name of Angus Hamilton visited the city and said: “The streets of Seoul are magnificent, wide, clean, admirably done and well drained. The narrow, dirty alleys have been widened, the canals have been covered, roads widened Seoul is within measurable distance of becoming the tallest, most interesting and cleanest city in the East. ”

Colonial korea

When the Japanese empire annexed Korea, it made Seoul its colonial capital. While under colonial rule (1910 – 1945), the city was called Gyeongseong. Gyeongseong was an urban prefecture like present-day Kyoto or Osaka with two districts: Gyeongseong itself and Yongsan-gu. The Japanese General Government Building was the seat of colonial government during colonial Korea and was torn down in 1995.


After World War II and the liberation of Korea, the city took its current name from Seoul. When the Republic of Korea (South Korea) declared itself as a state, it adopted the city as its capital.

In 1950, the Korean War broke out and Seoul changed hands between North Korean forces and South Korean forces four times, leaving the city largely destroyed at the end of the war. An estimate of the damage indicates that at least 191,000 buildings, 55,000 houses and 1,000 factories were left in ruins. In addition, there was an avalanche of refugees from the north, increasing the population of the city, to about 2.5 million people. More than half of them were left homeless.

After the war, Seoul became the focus of an immense reconstruction and modernization effort. The rapid economic growth achieved during the industrialization of the 1960s and 1970s increased the living standards of residents considerably. The outbreak of tall office and apartment buildings began in the city during the construction boom of the 1980s. Pollution and traffic jams became major issues due to accelerated urbanization in the country and large numbers of people began to move to and around Seoul. Despite a green belt around the city to prevent urban sprawl, the Seoul metropolitan area soon became the third largest in the world in terms of population and one of the busiest.

According to Youremailverifier, Seoul was the host city of the Olympic Games of 1988, as well as one of the venues of the World Cup FIFA 2002.

During the 1990s, the city began to attract many workers from other countries, producing demographic changes. Previously, almost all of Seoul’s residents were from Korea, with the exception of a small Chinese minority. At present, there are an estimated 200,000 foreign nationals living in Seoul. These include workers from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam.

In addition, there are many language teachers from countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, the United States, and the United Kingdom. As a large business and financial center, Seoul also has many executives and analysts from North America, Europe, and Japan. Seoul is ranked seventh in the world on the Fortune 500 list for the number of multinational companies headquartered there. It is also the second most expensive city, ahead of Tokyo and Hong Kong(ranked 3 and 4, respectively).

Transfer of the capital

The November of August of 2004, the Korean government of the South announced that the capital would be located in the Gongju area from 2007 to relieve pressure on the population in Seoul and government at a safe distance from Korea to the North. Gongju is approximately 120 kilometers south of Seoul. The government estimates that the measure will probably not be completed before 2012. Although part of it is part of the electoral program, this plan has sparked controversy throughout the country. On 21 October as as 2004, the Constitutional Court declared on the basis of customary law that the special law for the transfer of the capital is unconstitutional since relocation is a serious matter that requires a national referendum or revision of the Constitution, thereby ending the dispute.

At the end of 2004, however, the Government of South Korea announced its plans to pass most of the powers of the national state, with the exception of the Executive Branch, to Gongju, thus evading the violation of the Constitutional Court ruling and remaining Seoul as the national capital. Starting in 2011, preliminary construction of new government buildings has started in Gonju area. Naturally, no government body wants to get away from the center of power in Seoul, for which agencies will be forced to move is the subject of intense behind-the-scenes debate.

History of Seoul, South Korea

South Korea Defense and Foreign Policy

South Korea Defense and Foreign Policy

Foreign policy and defense

According to abbreviationfinder, South Korea is a nation in Eastern Asia. Its capital city is Seoul. The Cold War between the East and the West and the Korean Peninsula have characterized South Korea’s foreign policy since the state was founded in 1948. The Korean Peninsula is one of the most militarized areas in the world. Formally, war permits still exist between North and South Korea, as the 1953 ceasefire agreement was not followed by any peace agreement.

south korea military spending and defense budget

Both South Korea and North Korea aim to reunite the Korean peninsula. However, the political and military contradictions have been too great, and in South Korea the enormous financial burden it would take to take responsibility for the poor North Korea’s development.

  • Countryaah: Overview of business holidays and various national observances in South Korea for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024 and 2025.

Attempts to dialogue between South and North Korea in the 1970s and 1980s produced poor results. After the end of the Cold War around 1990, a cautious approach began and in 1991 North Korea gave up its opposition to UN membership for both countries, and the two Koreas were elected to the World Organization. The following year, a broad cooperation agreement came into force.

Kim Dae-Jung, president of South Korea in 1998–2003, worked purposefully for better relations with North Korea despite a series of North Korean cross-border intrusions. In 1999, however, North Korean and South Korean naval vessels fired at each other for the first time since the Korean War, with many casualties as a result. Nevertheless, contacts between the two countries were not interrupted. In June 2000, a summit was held between Kim Dae-Jung and North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il in Pyongyang. Among other things, they decided on financial cooperation and meetings for families who lived apart for half a century. At the Sydney Olympics that same year, South and North Korea’s participants marched in together.

New tensions

After the turn of the millennium, tension in the Korean Peninsula increased. Many deaths were claimed in 2002 during a fire in the Yellow Sea. Following an apology from North Korea for provocation, work began on restoring road and rail links.

The international six-party talks on North Korea’s nuclear weapons program begun in 2003 between North Korea and South Korea, China, Japan, Russia and the United States broke down in 2006, and the same year North Korea conducted its first nuclear test. Despite tensions, the countries’ economic cooperation projects in North Korea continued: the Kaesong industrial zone and the tourist resort on Kumgang Mountain.

The second Korea summit held in Pyongyang in 2007 paved the way for better relations, but promises of peace talks ran out in the sand. Under the conservative president Lee Myung-Bak, from 2007 a new hard line was launched against North Korea. South Korea demanded that the nuclear agreement be complied with in order to provide assistance and support. North Korea responded by closing the border between the countries, stopping tourist travel and freight by rail and expelling South Koreans from Kaesong.

North Korea lowers ships

North Korea’s second nuclear test in 2009 escalated war rhetoric between the countries. The situation worsened the following year when the South Korean warship Cheonan dropped after an explosion and 46 people were killed. After an international investigation, South Korea declared that a North Korean torpedo attack was behind. Trade with North Korea was frozen, and North Korean merchant vessels were banned in South Korean waters. President Lee declared that future attacks would be met directly with military response. Later in the year, North Korea shot down the South Korean island of Yeonpyeong, near the disputed sea border between the countries. Two South Korean soldiers and two civilians were reported to have been killed in the attack. North Korea accused South Korea of ​​starting the fire. South Korea denied this but admitted that missiles had been tested in the area.

Following North Korea’s rocket launch in December 2012 and the third nuclear test in February 2013, relations between Seoul and Pyongyang deteriorated again. In connection with North Korea being punished at the beginning of March of the same year with new harsh UN sanctions, Pyongyang threatened with a nuclear attack on South Korea (and the US). The South Korean Defense Ministry responded by promising immediate merciless retaliation to North Korea’s highest military leadership. In the following years, the grim climate between the Korean states persisted as North Korea stepped up its missile and nuclear test (see Calendar).

Approaching the Olympics in South Korea

However, in January 2018, for the first time since Kim Jong-Un’s accession as North Korean leader, countries held high-level bilateral talks. The official reason for the talks was to discuss North Korea’s possible participation in the Winter Olympics in South Korean Pyeongchang in February of the same year. During the meeting, North Korea announced that it intended to send a delegation to the sporting event.

During the inaugural ceremony, North and South Korean competitors competed together and later met with President Moon Jae-In North Korea’s Former Head of State Kim Yong-Nam and North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un’s sister Kim Yo-Jong. It was the first time since the end of the Korean War that so high-ranking North Koreans visited South Korea.

In April, a historic meeting was then held in the border village of Panmunjom, in the demilitarized zone along the 38th latitude, between North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-Un and South Korea’s President Moon Jae-In. At the summit, the two leaders agreed to work to reach a peace agreement in 2018 and for total nuclear disarmament on the Korean Peninsula. However, the process has stalled towards the end of the 2010s.

Relationship with the United States

South Korea has been heavily dependent on the United States since the Korean War. In 1954, Seoul and Washington signed an agreement to defend common security interests, and throughout the post-war era, the United States has had major troops in South Korea. At the same time, South Korea has been an important ally for the United States in Asia and the only country there that had major alliances in the Vietnam War.

Following the US-led alliance invasion of Iraq in 2003, South Korea sent troops to Iraq for five years. The operation was wound up after a South Korean interpreter was kidnapped and murdered. The last soldiers were taken home in 2008.

South Korea also contributed up to 2007 with a few hundred engineer soldiers and doctors to the NATO led Isaf force in Afghanistan.

The relationship between the United States and South Korea has been subject to both political and economic strain, including through large student demonstrations against the US military presence in South Korea. In 2007, both countries signed a free trade agreement, which in South Korea was seen as the most important event between them after the 1954 military agreement.

South Korea’s dependence on military strategic cooperation with the US declined over a period of time. North Korea’s nuclear weapons program forced Seoul to turn to China in 2002 to ask Beijing for help to influence Pyongyang, as US policy was considered too harsh. Since then, however, South Korea has sharpened its own line and once again approached the United States. North Korea has reacted sharply to South Korea’s annual military exercises with the US and the decision to set up the US missile defense system THAAD in South Korea (see below).

China and Japan

Relations with China have developed strongly, primarily through growing trade and investment. However, the relationship became colder after the 2016 joint decision by Seoul and Washington to deploy a US missile defense system THAAD in South Korea (see below). Beijing vigorously protested the decision, which is believed to disrupt the security balance in the region. South Korean commodity chain Lotte had to close almost all its stores, while sales of South Korean Hyundai were also reported to have hit sharply declining sales in 2017. When THAAD began to set up in South Korea in the spring of 2017, Beijing demanded that it be removed immediately. Chinese tourist trips to South Korea were suspended and Chinese authorities also imposed restrictions on South Korean group trips to China, which hit South Korean airlines and tour operators.

South Korea’s relationship with neighboring Japan has been complicated. The harsh colonial rule and subsequent occupation during the Second World War (see Older History) caused deep and long-lasting wounds in Koreans, who are still alive today. It was not until 1993 that the Japanese government acknowledged that many Korean women and girls were exploited as prostitutes on Japanese field brothels. Later, reports of continued discrimination against Koreans in Japan have rioted in South Korea. In 2015, an agreement was reached with Japan on financial compensation for the exploited women and the Japanese Prime Minister apologized for what had happened. Thus, the problem would be solved, one hoped not least from the Japanese side.

But after conducting an evaluation of the agreement, the new president Moon Jae-In decided three years later that it would be demolished because it had “major flaws”. The South Korean government would replace the fund set up with financial support from Japan to provide compensation to affected women and their families for their own funding. The decision helped to re-establish relations between the two countries.

In 2001, South Korea called home its ambassador from Japan in protest at the Japanese schools’ new history books smoothing over Japanese abuse during the occupation. Japan’s Prime Minister visited South Korea the same year and apologized for “the pain and sorrow” that Japan inflicted on the Korean people during the Japanese colonial empire.

An unresolved dispute over the sea border and the right to an uninhabited small archipelago (Dokdo; in Japanese Takeshima) flares up now and then. The area has rich fishing waters and in the depths of the sea there are large deposits of methane hydrates that are expected to be an important future energy source. As the first South Korean president, Lee visited Dokdo in August 2012. The visit led to a diplomatic protest from Japan as well as tensions between the two countries. South Korea’s critical attitude to Japan continued during the 2010s, but despite this line, South Korea and Japan’s cooperation has been strengthened in several areas, especially in the North Korea issue.


After the Korean War, South Korea was equipped with US assistance. The military was then ordained under UN command, and for a quarter of a century the UN command in South Korea was responsible for the country’s defense. The armed forces have since been subordinated to American control in the event of war.

In 2003 it was decided that the US ground alliance would be pulled south and that the South Korean army would take over at the front line to the north. By the end of the 2010, the United States had more than 30,000 people in South Korea. In the demilitarized zone there is a small base for neutral Swedish and Swiss officers who monitor the 1953 standstill agreement (see Modern History).

The defense was modernized in the 1980s and became one of Asia’s best-equipped military forces. North Korea has more soldiers and more weapons, but South Korea has just over 650,000 men under arms and a qualitatively stronger defense than its neighbor in the north. However, concern is high over North Korea’s nuclear weapons program, missile holdings and suspected stockpiles of biochemical weapons.

South Korea’s previous plans to develop a nuclear weapons program were abandoned following pressure from the United States.

In July 2016, South Korea and the United States signed an agreement to place the US missile defense system THAAD in South Korea. It could shoot down short and medium-range missiles from North Korea, which by the mid-2010s significantly increased its missile and nuclear weapons tests. The system began to be deployed in the spring of 2017 on a former golf course, owned by the Lotte department store, in the Seongj district south of the capital.

READ TIP – read more about South Korea in UI’s web magazine Foreign Magazine :
The shadows of history rest heavily on South Korea (2019-09-23)

DEEP on South Korea also available in World Politics Day Issues Korean Reunification: An Impossible Dream (No 9 2019) South Korea and the Presidential Crisis: Opening for Reform (No 6 2017)


Army: 495 000 men (2017)

The air Force: 65,000 men (2017)

The fleet: 70,000 men (2017)

Military expenditure’s share of GDP: 2.6 percent (2017)

Military spending’s share of the state budget: 12.1 percent (2017)