Tag: Germany

Germany Archaeology

Germany Archaeology

In Germany the systematic search of the various archaeological remains of the national territory has been organized for a long time. Currently important new results have been obtained by the Archaeological Prospecting Center created in 1959 at the Landesmuseum in Bonn; this center carried out extensive aerial photographic surveys in the Rhineland, uncovering a large number of archaeological remains from various periods: entrenched villages from the Neolithic, mounds from the Hallstatt civilization, urn fields, enclosures from the La Tène era, locally called Gräber-Gärten (Wederath, Kreis, BernKastel, etc.), Roman villas and farms and in particular castra del limes of Germany Superior et Inferior.

The buildings of the Augustan age of Xanten (Castra Vetera) have not yet been identified also due to the phenomenon of erosion and the change of course of the Rhine. The first field (Vetera I) with internal stone constructions was probably built under Claudius, but few traces are preserved. On the other hand, the Neronian buildings are well known and a detailed plan has been made. The archaeological remains of Vetera II are scarce and poorly known, built by Vespasian after the events of 69 AD (Civil revolt) on the other bank of the west arm of the Rhine.) which attest, in the Augustan-Tiberian age, the existence of a military installation. Destroyed as a result of the riots of 69 AD, it was rebuilt and experienced various phases not documented with precision. Probably abandoned at the beginning of the 2nd century, the name does not appear in Antonino’s Itinerary. Following recent excavations it seems that also in Gelduba (Krefeld-Gellep) there was a small settlement of the Ubii, of which some traces have been found on the ground. In 69 a marching camp was built there for the troops from Superior Germany in the fight against Civil. Of this field only a few traces remain (parallel ditches, weapons, ceramics); around 71-75 AD was built near a castellum which underwent at least ten successive phases of construction up to the 4th century. The excavations made it possible to study the principia, the left door principalis and numerous moats. The Novaesium field (Neuss) is archaeologically well known. Currently it has been possible to establish a succession of twelve construction periods under Augustus and Tiberius. The best known phase of the encampment, the only one for which a detailed plan of the internal installations exists, is that of the Claudian age, to which the stone architecture of the buildings dates back. The existence of the canabae seems to be attested by the Tiberian age and a civil agglomeration developed there throughout the imperial period.

In Cologne, new clues have made it possible to establish the limits of the legionary camp of the Tiberian age, delimited in particular by a series of ovens for potters, who are currently considered dependent on the legionary camp. A part of the defensive system and the decumana gate were found of the military installations. The topography of the residential area of ​​Colonia Claudia-Ara Agrippinensis is also known: the ancient praetorium del campo was transformed into a palace with arcades intended for the governor of the province. Recently a mithraeum has been found and the remains of a theater and the site of the amphitheater located outside the walls have been brought to light; furthermore, the discovery of a series of towers and some sections of the walls made it possible to better understand the function of the outer wall that protected the city for the whole empire. As for the cities and the neighborhoods recently discovered, very little known is the ancient agglomeration of Neumagen (Noviomagus); only a few coins and ceramics (in addition to the famous reliefs) attest to its activity from the 1st to the 3rd century. An important craft and trade center has been located in Pachten (Contiomagus?). Rare are the traces relating to the 1st century AD. C., while much more numerous are those pertinent to the 2nd and especially to the 3rd and 4th centuries. A neighborhood of potters has been traced to the western edge of the vicus ; moreover, a sanctuary surrounded by a wall framed a temple with a square cell and portico and a monoptero temple dedicated to Pritona; the complex was to be flanked by a theater. A few years ago an important agglomeration built with an orthogonal plan was excavated in Schwarzennacker, on the Trier-Strasbourg road; the vicus it had to have an exclusively agricultural character. Systematic excavations of the site have revealed a residential neighborhood. The excavation of the Pesch sanctuary has recently been resumed; Remodeled several times, the temples often show traces overlapping and difficult to interpret: however, two main periods of occupation have been possible (in the 1st century and from the 2nd to the 4th century AD). The constructions of the second stage are of a very particular shape: the large central enclosure must have constituted a covered place; neither the destination nor the date of the singular temple B or basilica is clear, a square-plan building with a rectangular apse, divided into three naves by two rows of columns: the originality of the building suggests a mystery cult. The most important cult of the sanctuary must have been that of the Matronae Vacallinehae of which about three hundred inscriptions have been discovered. A new temple dedicated to the Matronae has been found in the same region in Zingsheim. A new cult complex was recently unearthed in Hunsrück, in Heckenmünster-Wallenborn, consisting of three temples, two of which are Celtic-type and the third has an orthogonal plan: there are annexes of the spa buildings. Built at the end of the 1st century AD. C., the sanctuary was abandoned at the end of the 3rd century.

After 1960, laboratory researches relating to ceramics multiplied, making it possible to better clarify the techniques of manufacture and to distinguish their origins. The importation of the “Italic sealed earth” and the importance it has for the dating of the places of discovery has been demonstrated once more by the recent discovery, in Haltern, of a potter’s workshop with fragments of molds for processing. of chalices imitating the Arezzo vases. The relationship between the Trier, Sinzig and Rheinzabern workshops and the master craftsmen operating in Mittelbronn and in the Moselle area etc. was also studied, and the influence of these in the production of the branches located further east was underlined. In this context, the recent discovery in Novaesium of Sigillata from central Gaul from the 2nd and 3rd centuries should be mentioned.

Germany Archaeology

Oberammergau Passion Play

Oberammergau Passion Play

Every ten years the Upper Bavarian municipality of Oberammergau hosts one of the most traditional performances in Germany, the Oberammergau Passion Play. The performances are not only the most famous passion plays in the world, since 2014 they have also been part of the nationwide register of intangible cultural heritage, which, like the UNESCO World Heritage Site, is of particular importance for the preservation of intangible values.

The first performance took place in 1634, when, after a devastating year of plague, the townspeople had vowed to regularly perform a passion play if they were freed from the plague. This tradition has continued to this day, despite temporary bans, including in the 18th century by the clergy of Elector Maximilian III. Joseph, held, and still nearly the entire ward is attending the games.

The text, which has been continuously expanded and redesigned over time, focuses on the last five days in the life of Christ; depending on the staging, there are also living images with scenes from the Old Testament or from the history of the games. After the Second Vatican Council at the end of the 1960s, which documented that the Jews are not guilty of Jesus’ death, the image of the Jews in the play was fundamentally revised at the request of the Catholic Church with the cooperation of various Jewish organizations. The music of the Passion Play, on the other hand, which comes from the pen of Oberammergau teacher and composer Rochus Dedler (1779–1822), has remained the same since it was first performed in 1810.

The planning and rehearsals for the Oberammergau Passion Play always begin several years before the performances. The whole community is entitled to vote in the selection of the director, actors and staging. The games not only represent an important cultural and religious tradition, they also represent an important economic factor with their more than 500,000 visitors from all over the world. Above all, the Passion Play Oberammergau is suitable for every visitor due to the dedication and intensity of its actors unforgettable experience.


Regensburg is one of the oldest German cities and has been continuously settled since Celtic times. The capital of the Upper Palatinate district is the fourth largest city in Bavaria. It has around 140,300 inhabitants, who are spread over the extensive urban area on both banks of the Danube. Regensburg is a bishopric and an important tourist center in Eastern Bavaria.

Regensburg for culture lovers and study travelers

Regensburg has more than 1,300 architectural monuments. On a tour through the city, the Regensburg dynasty towers, the old town hall and the “Stone Bridge” from the 12th century as well as the Herzogshof catch the eye.
The streets of the old town are characterized by historical buildings from many eras. Rich merchant families built opulent houses and villas here. In between there are churches, the bishop’s seat and the imposing St. Peter’s Cathedral, where the famous Regensburg cathedral sparrows regularly appear. Emmeram Castle, the headquarters of Thurn & Taxis, is located a little outside the city center.

Regensburg for nature lovers and active people

Regensburg is cozy and at the same time exciting, as more than 20 museums, exhibitions and memorials show. In the summer months, many interesting events take place in the beautiful parks, in the city center and along the Danube, attracting visitors from all over Germany.
Nature lovers can hike or cycle in the Regensburg avenue belt or the wooded and hilly surrounding area. A special view of Regensburg is offered during a boat trip on the Danube, which also takes you past the two islands of Obere and Untere Wörth in the city area.

Sanssouci Palace

A visit to nearby Potsdam should not be missing on a trip to Berlin. Hardly any other city can boast such a unique architectural ensemble as the Brandenburg capital. UNESCO honored this unique combination of castles and parks in the form that it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The focus of this ensemble is of course the Sanssouci Palace.

It started with old Fritz

Friedrich II laid the foundation stone for the magnificent gardens and the Sanssouci Palace in 1745 when he commissioned the construction of a small rococo summer palace. But it was not until the next century, in 1841, under Friedrich IV, a great-nephew of old Fritz, that the expansion into the palace and the gardens that can be admired today began. Friedrich Wilhelm IV had side wings built on the left and right of the original summer palace of his ancestor. The striking vineyard terraces, which nestle against the slope directly below the castle, were laid out in the time of Frederick II.

The architecture of Sanssouci

The original summer palace with a length of 91 m was built by the architect Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff based on the sketches of Friedrich II. The side wings that were added in the following century, each 31 m long, were again made by Ludwig Persius based on the king’s sketches.
The idea of ​​a summer palace was also retained under Friedrich IV and so all rooms are on one level so that you can access the garden without having to climb stairs. The front as well as the garden are oriented to the south and have magnificent decorations, whereas the north side is kept rather simple.

The German Versailles

Under Friedrich IV, the original place of residence of the old Fritz, who once wanted to be buried on the top terrace, was expanded and rebuilt for representative purposes. Accordingly, the rooms of the palace show themselves in a splendid interior that reminds quite a few visitors of the Palace of Versailles of the French Sun King, Louis XIV. In addition to the castle, it is also the impressive gardens that fascinate every visitor and make you dream of times gone by.

Oberammergau Passion Play Germany

West Berlin

West Berlin

Forced by the behavior of the SED (primarily due to the SED-controlled occupation of the New Town Hall in the east of the city by violent demonstrators, September 1948) and the Soviet occupying power, the magistrate and the House of Representatives partially relocated their seat to the west of the city, among others. in the Schöneberg town hall. For the West Berliners, the USA, Great Britain and France had changed from occupying powers to protecting powers. In the elections of December 5, 1948, which the magistrate residing in Berlin (West) had planned for the whole of Berlin as part of its constitutional powers, the SPD won an absolute majority; the House of Representatives elected Reuter again as Lord Mayor, who could only take office in the west of the city. The economic and cultural reconstruction of Berlin (West) began – intensified after the end of the blockade; In the process, within the framework of the reservation rights of the Western powers, which now continued their activities on a three-power basis, an increasingly dense network of ties developed between the western part of Berlin and the (later) federal territory. See ABBREVIATIONFINDER for acronyms about Berlin.

After the state division of Germany (September / October 1949) all of Berlin and the Berlin question remained the focus of the German question in the East-West conflict (German history). Greater Berlin in its expansion created in 1920 was a state of the Federal Republic of Germany according to the Berlin constitution of September 1, 1950 and the Basic Law, but this provision was only valid to a limited extent until 1990 – in order to preserve the four-power status: due to the reservations of the western occupying powers the approval of the Basic Law (Article 23 GG for Berlin suspended) and the Constitution of Berlin (Article 1 II, III), Berlin was not allowed to be governed by the federal government; the Western Allies held fast to the four-power responsibility for Greater Berlin. Thereafter, all of Berlin was subject to the four-power control of the occupying powers according to the London Protocol of September 12, 1944; also the Four Power Agreement (Berlin Agreement) of September 3, 1971 underlined that West Berlin is “not a constitutive part” of the Federal Republic of Germany. According to the Western Allies, the supreme power in Berlin, according to occupation law, lay solely with the Allies; sovereignty over Berlin (West) was exercised by the three Western Allies. In the context of these occupation reservations, however, ever closer relations with the Federal Republic of Germany developed; Berlin (West), as a city-state at the same time as the state and municipality, was represented in the Bundestag by 22 members elected and sent from the center of the House of Representatives and by four members in the Bundesrat. Due to the Allied reservation, the Berlin representatives had voting rights in the plenum of both bodies, which were limited to questions of the rules of procedure. but full right to speak and give advice as well as voting rights in committees and parliamentary groups. The federal laws and international treaties of the federal government did not apply directly in Berlin (West), but usually contained the Berlin clause. The Federal Constitutional Court was responsible for constitutional complaints against acts of the Berlin authorities. not responsible. The essential principles of the Basic Law and the fundamental rights, on the other hand, were also considered federal law in Berlin (West) because of a reference in the Berlin constitution. The law on the position of the State of Berlin in the federal financial system of 4.1.1952 was decisive for inclusion in the legal, economic and financial system of the Federal Republic of Germany; here also the adoption of federal laws by the Berlin state legislature was regulated. Berlin (West) was included in the EC with the consent of the Western Allies.

The city’s ties to the Federal Republic of Germany were guaranteed by the western allies even after 1971; they found their expression among other things. in the fact that numerous federal authorities and courts had their seat here. In international law, Berlin (West) was represented by the Federal Republic of Germany.

The importance of Berlin (West) lay in its direct influence on the GDR and until 1961 consisted in the possibility for residents of the GDR and Berlin (East) to reach the Federal Republic of Germany via Berlin (West). After the failure of the Berlin Conference on Germany (1954), the Western powers issued a guarantee of protection for Berlin (West) in the London Three-Power Declaration (1954), which was approved by NATO. When the Soviet leadership under N. S. Khrushchev demanded that West Berlin be converted into a demilitarized “Free City” within six months (Berlin ultimatum), there was a second major Berlin crisis triggered (11/27/1958). The Soviet threat led to renewed Western declarations of guarantees for their urban sectors, but also to efforts by the adversaries to compromise to avoid a military confrontation. After talks with Khrushchev in Vienna (June 3rd / 4th, 1961), where he confirmed his ultimatum, American President J. F. Kennedy summarized American Berlin policy in July 1961 in the announcement of the Three Essentials. The USSR then paved the way for the GDR to build the Berlin Wall, with political support from the Warsaw Pact states(from August 13, 1961) free; In doing so, the GDR prevented, above all, the flow of refugees from its territory. After lengthy negotiations, residents of Berlin (West) were able to visit relatives in Berlin (East) from 1963–66 under four permit agreements.

In close ties to the rest of Germany, Berlin (West) tried to develop its cultural and economic development further. In the course of a reform discussion at the Berlin University, especially the Free University (FU), which was characterized by anti-authoritarian, neo-Marxist approaches, a radical socialist movement developed between 1966 and 1968, which expressed itself in many, often militant demonstrations (APO).

From March 1970, there were extensive four-power negotiations, and on June 3, 1972 the Berlin Agreement of September 3, 1971 came into force. Access to Berlin (West) was regulated in a German-German transit agreement of December 17, 1971, the modalities of visits by West Berliners to Berlin (East) and the GDR in a travel and visit agreement between the government of the GDR and the Senate of Berlin (West) set. The GDR issued extremely limited permits for visits to the West (reasons for approval: retirement age, disability, death of next of kin, etc.); by increasing and expanding the mandatory exchange of money (“minimum exchange”) per day of visit since 1980, it has cut the number of people entering from the west to less than half.

Until 1975 the SPD remained the strongest party in the House of Representatives; in the elections it won an absolute majority several times and since the constitution of 1950 came into force with Reuter (until 1953), O. Suhr (1955–57), W. Brandt(1957–66), H. Albertz (1966/67), Klaus Schütz (* 1926, † 2012; 1967–77), Dietrich Stobbe (* 1938, † 2011; 1977–81) and H.-J. Vogel (1981) the Governing Mayor; 1953–55 W. Schreiber (CDU) held this office. With the elections of 1975 the CDU became the strongest party and from 1981 provided the governing mayor: 1981–84 R. von Weizsäcker and 1984–89 E. Diepgen. The coalition of the SPD and Alternative List (in the House of Representatives since 1981) formed in February 1989 under W. Momper (SPD) broke up at the end of November 1990.

West Berlin