Tag: France

France Population Density and Distribution

France Population Density and Distribution

According to trackaah.com, the average density of the French population, 74 residents per sq. km. (1926), is the result of very different values. There are various causes of these differences, but in any case we can refer to certain general principles. The highest densities are found in urban and industrial regions, where only a constant increase is noted. The average densities are typical of the most fertile rural regions and especially those where once there was some industry (home weaving, small metallurgy, woodworking, etc.): in these regions the increase in the agricultural population has ceased, and the decrease it is often due to the disappearance of rural industries. The cultivation of cereals, even in the fertile plains, brings with it a relatively low population density, much lower than the average in France: this is especially noticeable in the Beauce. The cultivation of the vine, on the other hand, always carries relatively strong densities (côtes della Sciampagna, Burgundian Gold Coast and also the lowlands of the lower Languedoc); and the same can be said for the cultivation of vegetables and early fruits (Rhone valley, Brittany, etc.). Although it is not possible to establish the maxim that there is a constant relationship between the value of the land and the density of the population, nevertheless the villages of small properties are almost always more populated than those of large properties. The minimum densities are found in forest regions, which may also have a certain extent in the plains (eastern part of the Paris Basin, Gascony moors), but which generally occupy a greater surface area in the mountains (Alps, Jura, Vosges); and they are also found in regions with uncovered but absolutely sterile soil (savartsof Champagne). It goes without saying that the alpine area in the higher parts is depopulated and the subalpine area is largely sparsely inhabited.

The highest densities (see map) are found in the north of France and especially in the departments bordering Belgium: Nord (341), Pas-de-Calais (174). The presence of the most important French coal basin, giving rise to various industries, led to the intense renting of the population in this area but the population was very significant even before, due to the fact that, before the nineteenth century, a rational agriculture it was already coupled with some industries widespread in the countryside. Another dark spot marks Lower Normandy on the map (Lower Seine, 140); here too they are ancient rural industries (textiles), which are now concentrated around some cities, Rouen, Elboeuf, etc.: the presence of two of the largest ports in France (Le Havre and Rouen) favors their activity. The surroundings of Paris have, of course, a very dense population, and the maquis extends more and more, going up the valley of the Oise as far as Creil. Alsace has long been a very populated region; despite the existence of large forests, the average of the Bas-Rhin department reaches 191 residents per sq.km .; but at the foot of the Vosges there is the maximum density (250 and 300 residents per sq. km.) due to the vineyards and the large number of small industrial centers; this area extends through the Burgundy Gate towards Franche-Comté, throughout the cotton and metallurgical region of Belfort and Montbéliard, as far as Besançon. Brittany, although generally having a rather poor soil, is one of the most populated regions; but the strong densities are all confined to the coast (200 and in some points 250 residents per sq. km.), where are the best soils, with crops of first fruits, and almost all cities (fishing ports or commercial ports). The center and the south of France have very rare areas with a high density; some of them are due to the presence of coalfields, which, although less important than those in the north, have determined the development of large-scale industry (Le Creusot, Saint-Étienne). In Aquitaine, the Garonne valley, because of its fertility and its function as a trade route, contains numerous cities and large villages, which are dedicated to rich crops: vineyards, fruit trees and first fruits: the density is therefore considerable. The wine-growing plain of Lower Languedoc also has an above average density (100). The Saone-Rhône corridor, although of great commercial importance, is not all very populated: here the most extensive dark spot on the map is that due to the presence of Lyon, which is linked to the other of the coal basin of Saint-Étienne, and which, due to the ancient industries scattered here and there in this region, penetrates into the lower Dauphiné, thus reaching Grésivaudan, the only one of the great Alpine valleys that has densities over 100 residents. Another region with a high density and constant increase in population is the irrigated plain of Comtat (Avignon, Cavaillon, etc.). The surroundings of Marseille and Nice present the last areas with intense population.

The regions with the lowest density are not lacking even in the north of France: Champagne Pouilleuse with its savartsit is very depopulated (less than 20 residents per sq. km.), and the high Burgundian plateaus (Châtillonnais, plateau of Langres), covered with large forests, have low densities, which are continuously decreasing, as the iron industry has completely disappeared, once a source of some prosperity. This area joins the great forests of Lorraine. The Massif Central is very sparsely populated above 700 and 800 m. (high Limousin, high Cantal, Margeride and Aubrac, high Velay, high Vivarais). In Aquitaine, the Gascony moors have always been almost a desert. The rational exploitation of the pine forests has enriched the rare villages, without causing a notable increase in population (Landes, 28 residents per sq. Km.). The Alps are not as deserted as their heights would suggest.

Most of the wide valleys of the Savoy and the Dauphiné have areas with densities above the average of France, which push forward between the solitudes of the upper subalpine area and the alpine area itself. On the other hand, the Alpes de Provence are almost completely abandoned by men: deforestation has ruined the soil on the slopes: in a century, the relative population of some districts has been reduced by half, reaching less than 10 residents. per sq. km.

France Population Density and Distribution

Franco-German War of 1870

Franco-German War of 1870

Franco-German War of 1870/71, war between France and the North German Confederation under the leadership of Prussia. Last of the so-called wars of unification.

The cause of the war was v. a. In the will of O. von Bismarck , after the victories of Prussia in 1866/67, to secure its hegemony in continental Europe permanently, domestic political difficulties in France came in handy.

The external reason was the question of the “Hohenzollern candidacy for the throne” in Spain (Emser Depesche). On July 19, 1870, France declared war. While a Franco-Austrian alliance did not come about in time, the southern German states sided with Prussia. From the Palatinate, three German armies under Crown Prince Friedrich, Prince Friedrich Karl and K. F. von Steinmetz (with H. Graf von Moltke as Chief of Staff), mobilized in the shortest possible time, advanced and took the initiative.

They won at Weißenburg (4.8.), Wörth and Spichern (6.8.). The French Rhine Army under F. A. Bazaine was thrown into the fortress of Metz and enclosed in the battles at Colombey-Nouilly, Vionville-Mars-la-Tour and Gravelotte-Saint-Privat (August 14th to 18th). In an attempt to relieve Bazaine, the French Marshal M. Mac-Mahon was pushed to Sedan and surrounded there; his entire army surrendered on September 2, Napoleon III. got into captivity with her.

After the French Republic was proclaimed (September 4), the German armies advanced on Paris and closed it on September 15. on. Metz capitulated on October 27th. The armies set up by L. Gambetta in the south and north for the liberation of Paris were defeated at Orléans, Le Mans, Amiens and Saint-Quentin in December 1870 and January 1871.

Fearing that the neutrals would interfere, O. von Bismarck tried to hasten the fall of Paris and pushed through the bombardment of the fortress against the military leadership. An armistice was signed on January 28, 1871. Only in eastern France was there still fighting; on 1.2. the French Eastern Army was forced by the newly formed German Southern Army under E. Freiherr von Manteuffel to cede to Switzerland at Pontarlier, where they were interned.

Already on January 18th King Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in Versailles (foundation of the German Empire). On February 26 the preliminary peace of Versailles was concluded; on May 10th followed the Peace of Frankfurt. The obligation contained therein to evacuate the occupied French territories was fulfilled by Germany on September 16, 1873.

Air France

Air France [.epsilon. ː r Frà ː s], short for Compagnie Nationale Air France [k ɔ pa ɲ i nasj ɔ nal -], abbreviation AF [ ɑ eF], leading French airline, founded in 1933, Headquarters: Paris. 1990 Participation in Air Inter (merged with it since 1997) and takeover of the private airline UTA (Union des Transports Aériens). In 2000 she founded the airline alliance Skyteam with Delta Airlines Inc., Aeromexico and Korean Air. In 2003, AF carried 42.9 million passengers to 192 international destinations with a fleet of 360 aircraft. In 2004 there was a merger with the Dutch airline KLM to form Allianz Air France-KLM with the Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Amsterdam-Schiphol hubs. Under the umbrella of the holding company, Air France and KLM continued to exist as independent companies, which together flew to 328 destinations in 118 countries in 2017 (passenger volume: 98.7 million). Turnover (2017): € 25.78 billion, employees (2016): 84,600.

French Revolution

French Revolution, epoch of French history that lasted from 1789 to 1799 and during which the old rule (ancien régime) was forcibly removed.

The French Revolution was caused by abuses such as the arbitrary rule of kings, steadily increasing national debt with a simultaneous increase in the tax burden and famine. It was rooted in the mind Enlightenment.

After the Estates General (clergy, nobility, third estate) had been convened in May 1789 because of the government’s financial difficulties, the third estate declared itself to be the constituent national assembly. With the storming of the Bastille (the old state prison in Paris) on July 14th, the open uprising began (July 14th became a national holiday).

The National Assembly decided on profound changes: it proclaimed human rights, created the centralized administrative system with the départements and abolished the privileges of the nobility and clergy. Leading people were GJ Danton and Jean Paul Marat (1743–93). The National Convention, the new parliament (since 1792), decided to abolish kingship; Louis XVI was executed in 1793.

The Welfare Committee (the executive organ of the National Convention) headed by M. de Robespierre and the National Convention exercised a reign of terror.

After the fall of Robespierre and his execution (1794), a board of five convent members took over the government in 1795. The internal failures (bankruptcy of the state in 1797) and the foreign policy defeats in the Revolutionary Wars led to Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup in 1799 and the dissolution of the Directory.

The general slogan of the French Revolution (“Freedom, Equality, Fraternity”) remained a demand made again and again by the champions for the Human rights.

Franco-German War of 1870

 

Places to Visit in Bordeaux, France

Places to Visit in Bordeaux, France

Churches or sacred institutions

Cathédrale St. André
The cathedral was inaugurated by Pope Urban II in 1096 and comes close to the enormous dimensions of Notre Dame in Paris. The cathedral in Romanesque-Gothic style has a separate bell tower, which offers a beautiful view.
The preserved baroque organ of the cathedral is also worth a detour.
Address: Place Pey-Berland

Eglise St. Michel

The Eglise St. Michel has a 114 meter high bell tower and was built between the 15th and 16th centuries. There is a daily flea market around the church.
Address: Place Canteloup

Saint Seurin

Saint Seurin dates from the 13th and 14th centuries. However, it did not get its current garb in 1831. However, a figure portal on the south side of the church still dates from the original days.
The vestibule from the previous building from the 11th century is even older than this. Reliquaries and sarcophagi from the 6th and 7th centuries can still be seen in the crypt.
Address: Rue Rod. Péreire

Stages

Stade Chaban-Delmas (Parc de Lescure)
The Stade Chaban-Delmas (Parc de Lescure) was inaugurated in 1924 and is constantly updated, so that today there is space for up to 35,200 people, for example when the local soccer team GB plays here.
Address: Place Johnston

Zoological Garden

Zoo de Bordeaux Pessac
The Zoo de Bordeaux Pessac was bought by Wild Nature Holding in 2004 and was subsequently revised and redesigned.
Address:
3, avenue du Transvaal
33600 PESSAC

Parks

Jardin Public
The Jardin Public was laid out in 1746. There is a nice children’s playground on the island (Ile des enfants) on the lake in the park. Also in the park are the species-rich Bordeaux Botanical Garden and the natural history museum.
Address: Cours de Verdun

Rivers and lakes

Garonne
The city’s river is the Garonne, which flows through the city from north to south. It is spanned by five bridges within Bordeaux.

Bordeaux-Lac Bordeaux-Lac can be found on both sides of the northern ring road. The 160 hectare lake is the center of a complex that also includes the trade fair, a congress center, a cycling track and an amusement park.

Port

The city’s port is the sixth most important port in France, but the most important wine export port in the world. The city’s historic harbors lost their importance when sailing on the Gironde was no longer possible due to the increasing draft of the ships.
Internet: www.bordeaux-port.fr

Trips

The village of St. Emilion is 35 km east of Bordeaux . It is widely known for its 14th-century cloister of the Eglise Collégiale. The two towers Tour du Roy and Clocher Monolithe should also be visited here for a panoramic view, as well as the rock church Eglise Monolithe with the grotto and the catacombs. St. Emilion is even more famous for its excellent wines. Wine lovers should definitely not miss out on a few wine tastings.

The Médoc wine-growing region to the south and west of the Gironde covers 13,500 hectares. Wine enthusiasts are recommended to visit Château Mouton-Rothschild near Pauillac, which has collections and the wine store open to visitors.

The fortified castle of Château de la Brède is located around 20 km south of Bordeaux. It dates from the 14th century. Montesquieu was born here in 1689. A collection here commemorates the great writer and state theorist.

Trips

Atlantic coast
The Atlantic coast with its wonderful wide and white beaches is around 50 km (as the crow flies) from Bordeaux

Arcachon
The municipality of Arcachon with around 10,000 residents is located around 50 km (as the crow flies) southwest of Bordeaux.
The place is famous for its nearby dune “Dune du Pilat”, which has a height of about 110 m, a length of 2.7 km and a width at its base of about 500 m.

Traffic in the city

Tram
Since 2004 a modern tram has been running on three lines in the city of Bordeaux according to relationshipsplus. Most of the railway is supplied with an underground power supply. Internet: www.infotbc.com

Busses
Bordeaux has 72 bus routes that are used during the day, 10 express routes and 12 routes that are operated by the night bus.
www.infotbc.com

Taxis There are
around 400 taxis in Bordeaux. They can be called, stopped or boarded at one of the city’s numerous stations.

Bicycle
The bicycle path network in Bordeaux “intra muros” (within the city walls) is relatively well developed with cycle paths, not last. as the bus routes are also available to cyclists.

Places to Visit in Bordeaux, France