South Korea government and business circles are aware that South Korea’s economic prospects will largely depend on how successful the development of science and education will be. The education system consists of six years of primary education, three years of secondary education, three years of secondary education in advanced schools. Higher education can be obtained at colleges and universities (ca. 230 in 2001), which also run master’s and postgraduate programs that provide an opportunity to obtain a scientific degree.
According to Andyeducation, school education is paid for by central and local authorities (in the proportion of 78%: 22%), so it is practically universally accessible: only a small part of the cost of purchasing teaching aids is covered by parents. Although higher education institutions are 80% private, the government provides financial support to both the universities themselves and the parents of students, providing preferential loans to pay for the education of children. Officials are encouraged to improve their educational level in the country and abroad. The number of college and university students in 2001 was 1.73 million. Leading universities in the country: Seoul State University, Korea University, Kyung Hee University, Korea University of Education. Tens of thousands of South Korean students receive or continue their education in higher education institutions in the US, Europe and Japan.
The development of a strategy for the development of science in the Republic of Kazakhstan is determined by the Council for Science and Technology, headed by the President of the country. The committees of the Council coordinate the activities of government departments and the private sector in the scientific field. Particular attention is paid to the balance of power in the triangle “scientific laboratories – universities – private business”.
The Ministry of Science and Technology is responsible for the specific financing and implementation of scientific and technical programs, their distribution among scientific centers. The Ministry of Economy, Industry and Energy is responsible for the implementation of priority areas for the development of high-tech industries. The Ministry of Informatics and Communications supports the development of information infrastructure.
A modern scientific base has been created in the country, the financing of which in 2001 reached 12 billion dollars, or 2.7% of GDP (1/3 – budget expenditures, 2/3 – private). The annual increase in spending on science in 1998-2001 was 14%. Among the leading industries are medicine and precision instrumentation, electronics. In these industries, R&D spending accounted for 5% and 4.2% of sales, respectively. However, the share of spending by the largest South Korean companies on R&D is lower than that of the leading Western corporations. Government spending will increase on nuclear research, biotechnology, and so on. Meanwhile, the 20 largest private companies account for 40% of all employed in science and 47% of scientists with a doctorate degree, 55% of all investment in R&D.
Institutional transformations become an acute problem, since the hierarchical and complex structure of large business, its concentration on solving tactical problems at the expense of strategic goals hinders innovation. Reforming the innovation sector implies its commercialization by encouraging the restructuring of large conglomerates, supporting the development of small venture businesses and stimulating the expansion of domestic demand for high-tech products. Only during 2001, declared by the government “the year of biotechnology”, and until the end. 2002 up to 600 venture companies specializing in biotechnology are created with the help of the government.
Since 2001, the Ministry of Science and Technology has sharply increased spending on financial support for scientific personnel. To this end, the practice of awarding prizes, grants, and scientific scholarships is expanding. The goal of modern state policy is to significantly improve the financial situation of those employed in science and strengthen the prestige of scientific work, to raise the status of South Korean scientists in society, who for a long time were in the shadow of the bureaucracy, military and businessmen, and also suffered significant material losses as a result of the crisis of 1997–98.
There are 233 museums in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Among the largest are the National Museum of Korea and the National Museum of Folk Art (Seoul). The museum complexes located in the ancient cities and former capitals of Gyeongju and Buyeo are famous. In addition to state, municipal and university museums, there are more than 80 museums in the country created by individuals and corporations.
In the development of contemporary fine arts in the South of the Korean Peninsula, an important role was played by the activities of the 1950s. The National Exhibition, supported by the state and giving priority to the realistic direction of painting and sculpture. In the subsequent period, other artistic directions developed in the country. Of great importance for the modern cultural life of the Republic of Kazakhstan was the holding in 1995 in Gwangju of the international festival of arts “Kwangju Biennale”, which reflected the diversity of artistic trends in the art of the Republic of Kazakhstan, its growing ties with world cultural centers.
Modern Korean literature (including modern prose and poetry) is developing under the significant influence of Western literature.
Korean musical and theatrical art is rooted in primitive religious rites. Traditional colorful theatrical performances that combine dance, songs and oral narration are presented on the stage of the Cheongdong Theater (Seoul). The first Western-style theater opened in Seoul in 1908. There are several theaters and stages in the Republic of Kazakhstan that stage performances of various genres. A number of them are located on Daehanno Street in the center of Seoul.
South Korean cinema after rapid growth in the 2nd half. 1950s experienced a long decline. Since the 1980s the film industry in Kazakhstan is on the rise again. The popularity of South Korean films is growing, many of which have received recognition at international film festivals in Cannes, Berlin, Venice, and Moscow.
Opera, symphonic music, classical and modern ballet are becoming increasingly popular in the country. Currently, 30 symphony orchestras operate in Seoul and other cities of the country. Korean singers and musicians, many of whom were educated in the best educational institutions of the Republic of Kazakhstan and other countries, regularly perform on the stages of famous theaters and at the world’s leading concert venues.