According to educationvv.com, the state system of school education in Austria was introduced as early as 1774; compulsory eight-year education was introduced in 1869, and nine years in 1962. After 4 years of elementary school, you can enroll in a basic or higher level general education school (gymnasium).
Universities in Austria carry out both teaching and research. Access to the university is open to all residents of the country who have passed the matriculation examination. As in schools, university education is free for Austrians. Now there are 19 universities in Austria, incl. 7 – in Vienna. More than 220 thousand students study in them (the share of foreigners is more than 12%). In addition to universities, there are special higher schools, colleges, academies and other universities.
The Austrian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1847, is the largest non-university scientific institution in the country. She is mainly engaged in fundamental research. It includes the Institute for Comparative Behavior Research. K. Lorenz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, etc.
Altogether in Austria approx. 2,200 scientific institutions employing approximately 25,000 people. Austria is characterized by active participation in international scientific cooperation: it participates in more than 1000 research projects of the EU framework program.
Small Austria is a country of great scientists and entire schools, not only in the natural sciences, but also in the humanities. The Austrian school of economics (K. Menger, F. von Wieser, E. von Beem-Bawerk), liberal theorist L. von Mises, psychologist S. Freud, economist J. Schumpeter, Nobel Prize winners F. von Hayek and K..Lorenz.
In the field of culture, Austria is associated with music. However, it also has deep traditions in the field of literature. Back in the 12th-13th centuries. Austria became one of the centers of literary creativity thanks to Walter von der Vogelweide and the Nibelungenlied. In an era closer to us, the literary glory of Austria was created by S. Zweig, who lived in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary) R. M. Rilke and F. Kafka, R. Musil.
The country has many architectural monuments of different eras and styles, starting from the 11th century. But of particular importance is the baroque, which still reflects the inner essence of the Austrians.
In the field of fine arts, artists G. Klimt, E. Schiele and O. Kokoschka gained world fame.
But music is still the most important of all the arts in Austria. The traditions of the “Viennese classics” – J. Haydn, W. A. Mozart, L. van Beethoven – were continued and developed by F. Schubert, A. Bruckner, J. Brahms, G. Mahler, and already in the 20th century. in the new musical aesthetics – A. Schoenberg, A. Berg, A. Webern. In the 2nd floor. 19th century the Viennese operetta was developed (J. Offenbach, J. Strauss, F. Legar, etc.).
In 1869, the Vienna Opera House was opened, directed by G. Mahler, R. Strauss, K. Böhm, G. von Karajan. The Salzburg Music Festival, held since 1920, is of great cultural significance.
Austrian museums are famous, especially the Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum, the Natural History Museum, the world’s largest collection of Albertina graphics, the Austrian Gallery (in the Belvedere Castle) and many others.
General information about Austria
The official name is the Republic of Austria (Republik Osterreich, Republic of Austria). Located in the southern part of Central Europe. The area is 83.9 thousand km2. Population – 8.14 million people. (Estimated as of Ser. 2002). The official language is German. The capital is Vienna (1.6 million people). Public holiday – October 26 (since 1955). The monetary unit is the euro (since 2002).
Member ok. 70 international organizations, incl. UN since 1955, EU since 1995, as well as the IMF, OECD, WTO, etc.